Two novel Gram-negative bacteria, designated strains DR41_21 and DR41_18, were isolated from coastal, surface waters of the north-western Mediterranean Sea. The cells were motile, pleomorphic rods, 2.9 μm long and 0.9 μm wide and formed cream colonies on marine agar medium. The G+C content of the genomic DNA was 60 mol%. Phylogenetic analysis of 16S rRNA gene sequences positioned the isolates in the class within the family . The 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity of the two strains was 98.8 % but DNA–DNA hybridization indicated only 55 % relatedness. Strain DR41_21 was able to denitrify and possessed and genes, unlike strain DR41_18, which possessed only . These isolates represent two novel species of a new genus, gen. nov., for which the names sp. nov. and sp. nov. are proposed. The type strain of is DR41_21 (=DSM 18348=CIP 109265=OOB 129) and the type strain of is DR41_18 (=DSM 19540=CIP 109601=OOB 128).


Article metrics loading...

Loading full text...

Full text loading...



  1. Agogué, H., Casamayor, E. O., Bourrain, M., Obernosterer, I., Joux, F., Herndl, G. J. & Lebaron, P.(2005). A survey on bacteria inhabiting the sea surface microlayer of coastal ecosystems. FEMS Microbiol Ecol 54, 269–280.[CrossRef] [Google Scholar]
  2. Altschul, S. F., Madden, T. L., Schaffer, A. A., Zhang, J., Zhang, Z., Miller, W. & Lipman, D. J.(1997). Gapped blast and psi-blast: a new generation of protein database search programs. Nucleic Acids Res 25, 3389–3402.[CrossRef] [Google Scholar]
  3. Anderson, J. J., Okubo, A., Robbins, A. S. & Richards, F. A.(1982). A model for nitrite and nitrate distributions in oceanic oxygen minimum zones. Deep-Sea Res A 29, 1113–1140.[CrossRef] [Google Scholar]
  4. Bange, H. W., Rixen, T., Johansen, A. M., Siefert, R. L., Ramesh, R., Ittekkot, V., Hoffmann, M. R. & Andreae, M. O.(2000). A revised nitrogen budget for the Arabian Sea. Global Biogeochem Cycles 14, 1283–1297.[CrossRef] [Google Scholar]
  5. Bonin, P., Tamburini, C. & Michotey, V.(2002). Determination of the bacterial processes which are sources of nitrous oxide production in marine samples. Water Res 36, 722–732.[CrossRef] [Google Scholar]
  6. Cline, J. D. & Richards, F. A.(1972). Oxygen deficient conditions and nitrate reduction in the eastern tropical North Pacific Ocean. Limnol Oceanogr 17, 885–900.[CrossRef] [Google Scholar]
  7. Codispoti, L. A. & Packard, T. T.(1980). Denitrification rates in the eastern tropical South Pacific. J Mar Res 38, 453–477. [Google Scholar]
  8. De Groote, D., van Doorn, L. J., Ducatelle, R., Verschuuren, A., Haesebrouck, F., Quint, W. G., Jalava, K. & Vandamme, P.(1999).Candidatus Helicobacter suis’, a gastric helicobacter from pigs, and its phylogenetic relatedness to other gastrospirilla. Int J Syst Bacteriol 49, 1769–1777.[CrossRef] [Google Scholar]
  9. Eckert, B., Weber, O. B., Kirchhof, G., Halbritter, A., Stoffels, M. & Hartmann, A.(2001).Azospirillum doebereinerae sp. nov., a nitrogen-fixing bacterium associated with the C4-grass Miscanthus. Int J Syst Evol Microbiol 51, 17–26. [Google Scholar]
  10. Goregues, C. M., Michotey, V. D. & Bonin, P. C.(2005). Molecular, biochemical, and physiological approaches for understanding the ecology of denitrification. Microb Ecol 49, 198–208.[CrossRef] [Google Scholar]
  11. Guyoneaud, R., Moune, S., Eatock, C., Bothorel, V., Hirschler-Rea, A., Willison, J., Duran, R., Liesack, W., Herbert, R. & other authors(2002). Characterization of three spiral-shaped purple nonsulfur bacteria isolated from coastal lagoon sediments, saline sulfur springs, and microbial mats: emended description of the genus Roseospira and description of Roseospira marina sp. nov., Roseospira navarrensis sp. nov., and Roseospira thiosulfatophila sp. nov. Arch Microbiol 178, 315–324.[CrossRef] [Google Scholar]
  12. Marmur, J. & Doty, P.(1962). Determination of the base composition of deoxyribonucleic acid from its thermal denaturation temperature. J Mol Biol 5, 109–118.[CrossRef] [Google Scholar]
  13. Mehnaz, S., Weselowski, B. & Lazarovits, G.(2007).Azospirillum canadense sp. nov., a nitrogen-fixing bacterium isolated from corn rhizosphere. Int J Syst Evol Microbiol 57, 620–624.[CrossRef] [Google Scholar]
  14. Michotey, V. & Bonin, P.(1997). Evidence for anaerobic bacterial processes in the water column: denitrification and dissimilatory nitrate ammonification in the northwestern Mediterranean Sea. Mar Ecol Prog Ser 160, 47–56.[CrossRef] [Google Scholar]
  15. Michotey, V., Mejean, V. & Bonin, P.(2000). Comparison of methods for quantification of cytochrome cd1-denitrifying bacteria in environmental marine samples. Appl Environ Microbiol 66, 1564–1571.[CrossRef] [Google Scholar]
  16. Naqvi, S. W. A.(1994). Denitrification processes in the Arabian Sea. In The Biogeochemistry of the Arabian Sea, pp. 181–202. Edited by D. Lal. Bangalore: Indian Academy of Sciences.
  17. Peng, G., Wang, H., Zhang, G., Hou, W., Liu, Y., Wang, E. T. & Tan, Z.(2006).Azospirillum melinis sp. nov., a group of diazotrophs isolated from tropical molasses grass. Int J Syst Evol Microbiol 56, 1263–1271.[CrossRef] [Google Scholar]
  18. Perrière, G. & Gouy, M.(1996). WWW-query: an on-line retrieval system for biological sequence banks. Biochimie 78, 364–369.[CrossRef] [Google Scholar]
  19. Powers, E. M.(1995). Efficacy of the Ryu nonstaining KOH technique for rapidly determining Gram reactions of food-borne and waterborne bacteria and yeasts. Appl Environ Microbiol 61, 3756–3758. [Google Scholar]
  20. Raguénès, G., Christen, R., Guézennec, J., Pignet, P. & Barbier, G.(1997).Vibrio diabolicus sp. nov., a new polysaccharide-secreting organism isolated from a deep-sea hydrothermal vent polychaete annelid, Alvinella pompejana. Int J Syst Bacteriol 47, 989–995.[CrossRef] [Google Scholar]
  21. Reinhold, B., Hurek, T., Fendrik, I., Pot, B., Gillis, M., Kersters, K., Thielemans, S. & De Ley, J.(1987).Azospirillum halopraeferens sp. nov., a nitrogen-fixing organism associated with roots of Kallar grass (Leptochloa fusca (L.) Kunth). Int J Syst Bacteriol 37, 43–51.[CrossRef] [Google Scholar]
  22. Rosch, C., Mergel, A. & Bothe, H.(2002). Biodiversity of denitrifying and dinitrogen-fixing bacteria in an acid forest soil. Appl Environ Microbiol 68, 3818–3829.[CrossRef] [Google Scholar]
  23. Rotthauwe, J. H., Witzel, K. P. & Liesack, W.(1997). The ammonia monooxygenase structural gene amoA as a functional marker: molecular fine-scale analysis of natural ammonia-oxidizing populations. Appl Environ Microbiol 63, 4704–4712. [Google Scholar]
  24. Saitou, N. & Nei, M.(1987). The neighbour-joining method: a new method for reconstructing phylogenetic trees. Mol Biol Evol 4, 406–425. [Google Scholar]
  25. Schut, F., de Vries, E. J., Gottschal, J. C., Robertson, B. R., Harder, W., Prins, R. A. & Button, D. K.(1993). Isolation of typical marine bacteria by dilution culture: growth, maintenance, and characteristics of isolates under laboratory conditions. Appl Environ Microbiol 59, 2150–2160. [Google Scholar]
  26. Sly, L. I., Taghavi, M. & Fegan, M.(1999). Phylogenetic position of Chitinophaga pinensis in the Flexibacter–Bacteroides–Cytophaga phylum. Int J Syst Bacteriol 49, 479–481.[CrossRef] [Google Scholar]
  27. Thompson, J. D., Higgins, D. G. & Gibson, T. J.(1994).clustalw: improving the sensitivity of progressive multiple sequence alignment through sequence weighting, position-specific gap penalties and weight matrix choice. Nucleic Acids Res 22, 4673–4680.[CrossRef] [Google Scholar]
  28. Tiedje, J. M.(1988). Ecology of denitrification and dissimilatory nitrate reduction to ammonium. In Biology of Anaerobic Microorganisms, pp. 179–227. Edited by A. J. B. Zehnder. New York: Wiley.
  29. Tréguer, P. & Le Corre, P.(1975). Manuel d'Analyse des Sels Nutritifs dans l'Eau de Mer (Utilisation de l'Autoanalyser 2 Technicon), pp. 1–110. Brest: Université de Bretagne Occidentale.
  30. Urios, L., Agogue, H., Lesongeur, F., Stackebrandt, E. & Lebaron, P.(2006).Balneola vulgaris gen. nov., sp. nov., a member of the phylum Bacteroidetes from the north-western Mediterranean Sea. Int J Syst Evol Microbiol 56, 1883–1887.[CrossRef] [Google Scholar]
  31. Wery, N., Lesongeur, F., Pignet, P., Derennes, V., Cambon-Bonavita, M., Godfroy, A. & Barbier, G.(2001a).Marinitoga camini gen. nov., sp. nov., a rod-shaped bacterium belonging to the order Thermotogales, isolated from a deep-sea hydrothermal vent. Int J Syst Evol Microbiol 51, 495–504. [Google Scholar]
  32. Wery, N., Moricet, J., Cueff, V., Jean, J., Pignet, P., Lesongeur, F., Cambon-Bonavita, M. & Barbier, G.(2001b).Caloranaerobacter azorensis gen. nov., sp. nov., an anaerobic thermophilic bacterium isolated from a deep-sea hydrothermal vent. Int J Syst Evol Microbiol 51, 1789–1796.[CrossRef] [Google Scholar]
  33. Xie, C. H. & Yokota, A.(2005).Azospirillum oryzae sp. nov., a nitrogen-fixing bacterium isolated from the roots of the rice plant Oryza sativa. Int J Syst Evol Microbiol 55, 1435–1438.[CrossRef] [Google Scholar]
  34. Zehr, J. P. & McReynolds, L. A.(1989). Use of degenerate oligonucleotides for amplification of the nifH gene from the marine cyanobacterium Trichodesmium thiebautii. Appl Environ Microbiol 55, 2522–2526. [Google Scholar]

Data & Media loading...


vol. , part 10, pp. 2336 - 2341

Electron micrograph of a negatively stained cell of strain DR41_21 harvested during the exponential phase.

Effects of temperature, pH and NaCl concentration on the growth of strain DR41_21 .

Fatty acid composition analysis for strains DR41_18 and DR41_21 .

Analysis of polar lipids for strains DR41_18 and DR41_21 .

Phylogenetic analysis of sequences of strains DR41_21 and DR41_18 .

Phylogenetic analysis of the sequence of strain DR41_21 .

Combined file [ PDF] 778 KB





This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Approval was a Success
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error