1887

Abstract

A motile bacterium, designated strain TDA-040725-5, was isolated from the haemolymph of a Chinese mitten crab, , with tremor disease. Based on 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis, the strain was phylogenetically distinct from other spiroplasmas but was closely related to ATCC 29335. Cells of strain TDA-040725-5 were variable in length and shape, helical and motile, as determined by phase-contrast light microscopy. Examination by electron microscopy revealed wall-less cells delimited by a single membrane. The strain grew in M1D or R-2 liquid media at 20–40 °C, with optimum growth at 30 °C. Doubling time at the optimal temperature was 24 h. The strain catabolized glucose and hydrolysed arginine but did not hydrolyse urea. The DNA G+C content was 29.7±1 mol%. The genome size was ~1.4–1.6 Mbp. Serological analysis, performed using the deformation test, did not reveal any reciprocal titres ≥320, indicating that strain TDA-040725-5 had minimal cross-reactivity to strains of recognized species of the genus . Based on this evidence, strain TDA-040725-5 ( = CCTCC M 207170  = DSM 21848) represents a novel species of the genus , for which the name sp. nov. is proposed, belonging to the novel serological group XLIII.

Funding
This study was supported by the:
  • National Natural Sciences Foundations of China (Award 30870090 and 30771649)
  • Project for Aquaculture in Jiangsu Province (Award J2009-43)
Loading

Article metrics loading...

/content/journal/ijsem/10.1099/ijs.0.020529-0
2011-04-01
2021-05-10
Loading full text...

Full text loading...

/deliver/fulltext/ijsem/61/4/703.html?itemId=/content/journal/ijsem/10.1099/ijs.0.020529-0&mimeType=html&fmt=ahah

References

  1. Aluotto B. B., Wittler R. G., Williams C. O., Faber J. E. 1970; Standardized bacteriologic techniques for the characterization of Mycoplasma species. Int J Syst Bacteriol 20:35–58 [CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  2. Bi K., Huang H., Gu W., Wang J., Wang W. 2008; Phylogenetic analysis of spiroplasmas from three freshwater crustaceans (Eriocheir sinensis, Procambarus clarkia and Penaeus vannamei) in China. J Invertebr Pathol 99:57–65 [CrossRef][PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  3. Brown D. R., Whitcomb R. F., Bradbury J. M. 2007; Revised minimal standards for description of new species of the class Mollicutes (division Tenericutes). Int J Syst Evol Microbiol 57:2703–2719 [CrossRef][PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  4. Carle P., Laigret F., Tully J. G., Bové J. M. 1995; Heterogeneity of genome sizes within the genus Spiroplasma . Int J Syst Bacteriol 45:178–181 [CrossRef][PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  5. Gasparich G. E., Whitcomb R. F., Dodge D., French F. E., Glass J., Williamson D. L. 2004; The genus Spiroplasma and its non-helical descendants: phylogenetic classification, correlation with phenotype and roots of the Mycoplasma mycoides clade. Int J Syst Evol Microbiol 54:893–918 [CrossRef][PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  6. Moulder R. W., French F. E., Chang C. J. 2002; Simplified media for spiroplasmas associated with tabanid flies. Can J Microbiol 48:1–6 [CrossRef][PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  7. Nunan L. M., Pantoja C. R., Salazar M., Aranguren F., Lightner D. V. 2004; Characterization and molecular methods for detection of a novel spiroplasma pathogenic to Penaeus vannamei . Dis Aquat Organ 62:255–264 [CrossRef][PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  8. Nunan L. M., Lightner D. V., Oduori M. A., Gasparich G. E. 2005; Spiroplasma penaei sp. nov., associated with mortalities in Penaeus vannamei, Pacific white shrimp. Int J Syst Evol Microbiol 55:2317–2322 [CrossRef][PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  9. Posada D., Crandall K. A. 1998; modeltest: testing the model of DNA substitution. Bioinformatics 14:817–818 [CrossRef][PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  10. Regassa L. B., Gasparich G. E. 2006; Spiroplasmas: evolutionary relationships and biodiversity. Front Biosci 11:2983–3002 [CrossRef][PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  11. Regassa L. B., Stewart K. M., Murphy A. C., French F. E., Lin T., Whitcomb R. F. 2004; Differentiation of group VIII Spiroplasma strains with sequences of the 16S–23S rDNA intergenic spacer region. Can J Microbiol 50:1061–1067 [CrossRef][PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  12. Swofford, D. L. (2002). paup*: Phylogenetic analysis using parsimony (and other methods), version 4.0b10. Sunderland, MA: Sinauer Associates.
  13. Thompson J. D., Gibson T. J., Plewniak F., Jeanmougin F., Higgins D. G. 1997; The clustal_x windows interface: flexible strategies for multiple sequence alignment aided by quality analysis tools. Nucleic Acids Res 25:4876–4882 [CrossRef][PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  14. Tully J. G. 1983; Cloning and filtration techniques for mycoplasmas. Methods Mycoplasmol 1:173–177
    [Google Scholar]
  15. Tully J. G., Whitcomb R. F., Williamson D. L., Clark H. F. 1976; Suckling mouse cataract agent is a helical wall-free prokaryote (spiroplasma) pathogenic for vertebrates. Nature 259:117–120 [CrossRef][PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  16. Tully J. G., Whitcomb R. F., Clark H. F., Williamson D. L. 1977; Pathogenic mycoplasmas: cultivation and vertebrate pathogenicity of a new spiroplasma. Science 195:892–894 [CrossRef][PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  17. Tully J. G., Whitcomb R. F., Rose D. L., Bove J. M. 1982; Spiroplasma mirum, a new species from the rabbit tick (Haemaphysalis leporispalustris). Int J Syst Bacteriol 32:92–100 [CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  18. Tully J. G., Whitcomb R. F., Rose D. L., Williamson D. L., Bové J. M. 1983; Characterization and taxonomic status of tick spiroplasmas: a review. Yale J Biol Med 56:599–603[PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  19. Wang W., Gu Z. 2002; Rickettsia-like organism associated with tremor disease and mortality of the Chinese mitten crab Eriocheir sinensis . Dis Aquat Organ 48:149–153 [CrossRef][PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  20. Wang W., Zhu N., Gu Z., Du K., Xu Z. 2002; Study on the transmission of tremor disease (TD) in the Chinese mitten crab, Eriocheir sinensis (Crustacea: Decapoda). J Invertebr Pathol 81:202–204 [CrossRef][PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  21. Wang W., Rong L., Gu W., Du K., Chen J. 2003; Study on experimental infections of Spiroplasma from the Chinese mitten crab in crayfish, mice and embryonated chickens. Res Microbiol 154:677–680 [CrossRef][PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  22. Wang W., Chen J., Du K., Xu Z. 2004a; Morphology of spiroplasmas in the Chinese mitten crab Eriocheir sinensis associated with tremor disease. Res Microbiol 155:630–635 [CrossRef][PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  23. Wang W., Wen B., Gasparich G. E., Zhu N., Rong L., Chen J., Xu Z. 2004b; A spiroplasma associated with tremor disease in the Chinese mitten crab (Eriocheir sinensis). Microbiology 150:3035–3040 [CrossRef][PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  24. Wang W., Gu W., Ding Z., Ren Y., Chen J., Hou Y. 2005; A novel Spiroplasma pathogen causing systemic infection in the crayfish Procambarus clarkii (Crustacea: Decapod), in China. FEMS Microbiol Lett 249:131–137 [CrossRef][PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  25. Wang J., Huang H., Feng Q., Liang T., Bi K., Gu W., Wang W., Shields J. D. 2009; Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for the detection of pathogenic spiroplasma in commercially exploited crustaceans from China. Aquaculture 292:166–171 [CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  26. Wei Z. 1999; [An investigation on the epidemiology of tremor disease of the Chinese mitten crab, Eriocheir sinensis ]. Freshw Fish 7:16–71 (in Chinese)
    [Google Scholar]
  27. Whitcomb R. F., Tully J. G., Rose D. L., Stephens E. B., Smith A., McCoy R. E., Barile M. F. 1982; Wall-less prokaryotes from fall flowers in central United States and Maryland. Curr Microbiol 7:285–290 [CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  28. Williamson D. L. 1983; Specialized electron microscopic techniques for spiroplasmas in plant and insect tissues. Methods Mycoplasmol 1:71–76
    [Google Scholar]
  29. Williamson D. L., Whitcomb R. F., Tully J. G. 1978; The spiroplasma deformation test, a new serological method. Curr Microbiol 1:203–207 [CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  30. Ye X., Chen Y. 1991; [Isolation, cultivation, and nutrition characters of spiroplasmas from flowers]. J Nanjing Agricultural University 14:58–62 (in Chinese)
    [Google Scholar]
  31. Zbinden M., Cambon-Bonavita M. A. 2003; Occurrence of Deferribacterales and Entomoplasmatales in the deep-sea Alvinocarid shrimp Rimicaris exoculata gut. FEMS Microbiol Ecol 46:23–30 [CrossRef][PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  32. Zhang F., Wang J., Zhu Q., Zhou G. 2002; [Electron microscopy of pathologen of appendage shaking disease of Eriocheir sinensis ]. J Dalian Fisheries University 17:336–340 (in Chinese)
    [Google Scholar]
http://instance.metastore.ingenta.com/content/journal/ijsem/10.1099/ijs.0.020529-0
Loading
/content/journal/ijsem/10.1099/ijs.0.020529-0
Loading

Data & Media loading...

Most cited this month Most Cited RSS feed

This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Approval was a Success
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error