1887

Abstract

The biological properties and special characteristics of the human T mycoplasmas have been reviewed and summarized. The T mycoplasmas are distinguished from all other known mycoplasmas by their production of urease, and, therefore, by their ability to hydrolyze urea. This singular property significantly sets the T mycoplasmas apart from all other members of the order . In consideration of this distinguishing property, it is reasonable to propose establishing a new, separate genus in the family in which to classify the T mycoplasmas isolated from man and lower animals. The name is proposed for this new genus, which at present contains a single human species of at least eight different serotypes. The name is proposed for this new species. The type strain of is human strain 960-(CX8), serotype VIII (Black); it has been deposited in the American Type Culture Collection as ATCC 27618.

Loading

Article metrics loading...

/content/journal/ijsem/10.1099/00207713-24-2-160
1974-04-01
2022-01-27
Loading full text...

Full text loading...

/deliver/fulltext/ijsem/24/2/ijs-24-2-160.html?itemId=/content/journal/ijsem/10.1099/00207713-24-2-160&mimeType=html&fmt=ahah

References

  1. Bak L. A., Black F. T. 1968; DNA base composition of human T strain mycoplasmas. Nature (London) 219:1044–1045
    [Google Scholar]
  2. Bak L. A., Black F. T., Christiansen C., Freundt E. A. 1969; Genome size of mycoplasmal DNA. Natu (London) 224:1209–1210
    [Google Scholar]
  3. Black F. T. 1970; Serological methods for classification of human T mycoplasmas. Fifth Int. Congr. Infect. Dis., Vienna, Austria 1:407–411
    [Google Scholar]
  4. Black F. T. 1973; Modifications of the growth inhibition test and its application to human T-mycoplasmas. Appl. Microbiol 25:528–533
    [Google Scholar]
  5. Black F. T. 1973; Phosphatase activity in T-mycoplasmas. Int. J. Syst. Bacteriol 23:65–66
    [Google Scholar]
  6. Black F. T. 1973; Biological and physical properties of human T-mycoplasma. Ann. N. Y. Acad. Sc 225:131–143
    [Google Scholar]
  7. Black F. T., Birch-Andersen A., Freundt E. A. 1972; Morphology and ultrastructure of human T mycoplasmas. J. Bacteri 111:25–4259
    [Google Scholar]
  8. Black F. T., Christiansen C., Askaa G. 1972; Genome size and base composition of deoxyribonucleic acid from eight human T-mycoplasmas. Int. J. Syst. Bacteriol 22:241–242
    [Google Scholar]
  9. Braun P., Klein J. O., Kass E. H. 1970; Susceptibility of genital mycoplasmas to antimicrobial agents. Appl. Microbiol 19:62–70
    [Google Scholar]
  10. Braun P., Klein J. O., Lee Y.-H., Kass E. H. 1970; Methodologic investigations and prevalence of genital mycoplasmas in pregnanc. J. Infect. D 121:391–400
    [Google Scholar]
  11. Braun P., Lee Y-H., Klein J. O., Marcy S. M., Klein T. A., Charles D., Levy P., Kass E. H. 1970; Birth weight and genital mycoplasmas in pregnancy. N. Engl. J. Med 284:167–171
    [Google Scholar]
  12. Brighton W. D., Windsor G. D., Andrews B. E., Williams R. E. O. 1967; Continuous culture of mycoplasma species. Monthly Bulletin of the Ministry of Health and the Public Health Laboratory Service (London) 26:154–158
    [Google Scholar]
  13. Caspi E., Herczeg E., Solomon F., Sompolinsky D. 1971; Amnionitis and T-strain mycoplasmemias. Am. J. Obstet. Gynecol III:1102–1106
    [Google Scholar]
  14. Caspi E., Solomon F., Sompolinski D. 1972; Early abortion and mycoplasma infection. Israel J. Med. Sci 8:122–127
    [Google Scholar]
  15. Clyde W. A. Jr 1963; Hemolysis in identifying Eaton’s pleuropneumonia-like organism. Science 139:55
    [Google Scholar]
  16. Csonka G. W., Corse J. 1970; Selective inhibition in vitro of Mycoplasma hominis by lincomycin. Brit. J. Vener. Dis 46:203–204
    [Google Scholar]
  17. Csonka G. W., Williams R. E. O., Corse J. 1967; T strain mycoplasma in nongonococcal urethritis. Ann. N. Y. Acad. Sci 143:794–798
    [Google Scholar]
  18. Dienes L., Ropes M. W., Smith W. E., Madoff S., Bauer W. 1948; The role of pleuropneumonia-like organisms in genitourinary and joint diseases. N. Engl. J. Med 238:509–515563–567
    [Google Scholar]
  19. Edward D. G. ff 1947; A selective medium for pleuropneumonia-like organism. J. Gen. Microbiol 1:238–243
    [Google Scholar]
  20. Ford D. K. 1962; Culture of human genital “T-strain” pleuropneumonia-like organisms. J. Bacteriol 84:1028–1034
    [Google Scholar]
  21. Ford D. K. 1967; Relationships between mycoplasma and the etiology of nongonococcal urethritis and Reiter’s syndrome. Ann. N. Y. Acad. Sci 143:501–504
    [Google Scholar]
  22. Ford D. K. 1972; Inhibition of growth of T-strain mycoplasmas by hydroxamic acids and by aurothiomalate.. Antimicrob. Ag. Chemothe 2:340–343
    [Google Scholar]
  23. Ford D. K., McCandlish K. L., Gronlund A. F. 1970; Metabolism of l4C-urea by T-strain mycoplasma. J. Bacteriol 102:605–606
    [Google Scholar]
  24. Ford D. K., MacDonald J. 1967; Influence of urea on the growth of T-strain mycoplasmas. J. Bacterio 93:1509–1512
    [Google Scholar]
  25. Foy H. M., Kenny G. E., Levinsohn E. M., Grayston J. T. 1970; Acquisition of mycoplasmata and T-strains during infancy. J. Infect. Dis 121:579–587
    [Google Scholar]
  26. Friberg J., Gnarpe H. 1973; Pregnancies in “infertile” couples treated with doxycycline for T-mycoplasmas. Amer. J. Obstet. Gynecol 116:23–26
    [Google Scholar]
  27. Furness G. 1973; T-mycoplasmas: their growth and production of a toxic substance in broth. J. Infect. Dis 127:9–16
    [Google Scholar]
  28. Gnarpe H., Friberg J. 1972; Mycoplasma and human reproductive failure. I. The occurrence of different Mycoplasmas in couples with reproductive failur. Amer. J. Obstet. Gynec 114:727–731
    [Google Scholar]
  29. Gourlay R. N., Howard C. J., Brownlie J. 1972; The production of mastitis in cows by the intramammary inoculation of T-mycoplasmas. J. Hyg 70:511–521
    [Google Scholar]
  30. Gourlay R. N., Thomas L. H. 1970; The experimental production of pneumonia in calves by the endobronchial inoculation of T-mycoplasmas. J. Comp. Pathol 80:585–594
    [Google Scholar]
  31. Grant C. L., Pramer D. 1962; Minor element composition of yeast extract.. J. Bacteriol 84:869–870
    [Google Scholar]
  32. Hendley J. O., Allred E. N. 1972; Prolonged stationary-phase growth of T-strain mycoplasmas in broth culture. Infect. Immunity 5:164–168
    [Google Scholar]
  33. Klein J. O., Buckland D., Finland M. 1969; Colonization of newborn infants by mycoplasmas. N. Engl. J. Med 280:1025–1030
    [Google Scholar]
  34. Kundsin R. B., Driscoll S. G., Ming P. L. 1967; A strain of mycoplasma associated with human reproductive failure. Science 157:1573–1574
    [Google Scholar]
  35. Lee Y-H., Bailey P. E., McCormack W. M. 1972; T mycoplasmas from urine and vaginal specimens: decreased rates of isolation and growth in the presence of thallium acetate. J. Infect. Dis 125:318–321
    [Google Scholar]
  36. Lin J-S., Kass E. H. 1970; Immune inactivation of T-strain mycoplasmas. J. Infect. Dis 122:93–95
    [Google Scholar]
  37. Lin J-S., Kass E. H. 1973; Serotypic heterogeneity in isolates of human genital T- mycoplasmas. Infect. Immunity 7:499–500
    [Google Scholar]
  38. Lin J-S. L., Kendrick M. I., Kass E. H. 1972; Serological typing of human genital T-myco- plasmas by a complement-dependent myco- plasmacidal test.. J. Infect. Dis 126:658–663
    [Google Scholar]
  39. Livingston C. W. Jr 1972; Isolation of T-strain of mycoplasma from Texas feedlot cattle. Amer. J. Vet. Res 33:1925–1929
    [Google Scholar]
  40. Low I. E., Eaton M. D., Proctor P. 1968; Relation of catalase to substrate utilization by Mycoplasma pneumoniae. J. Bacteriol 95:1425–1430
    [Google Scholar]
  41. McCormack W. M., Braun P., Lee Y-H., Klein J. O., Kass E. H. 1973; The genital mycoplasmas. N. Engl. J. Med 288:78–89
    [Google Scholar]
  42. McGee A. Z., Rogul M., Wittier R. G. 1967; Molecular genetic studies of relationships among mycoplasma, L-forms and bacteria. Ann. N. Y. Acad. Sci 143:21–30
    [Google Scholar]
  43. Madoff S. 1960; Isolation and identification of PPLO. Ann. N. Y. Acad. Sci 79:383–392
    [Google Scholar]
  44. Manchee R. J., Taylor-Robinson D. 1969; Enhanced growth of T-strain mycoplasmas with N-2-hydroxyethyl piperazine-N'-2-ethanesulfonic acid buffer. J. Bacteriol 100:78–85
    [Google Scholar]
  45. Manchee R. J., Taylor-Robinson D. 1970; Lysis and protection of erythrocytes by T-myco- plasmas. J. Med. Microbiol 3:539–546
    [Google Scholar]
  46. Mårdh P-A., Westrom L. 1970; T-myco- plasmas in the genitourinary tract of the female. Acta Pathol. Microbiol. Scand 78:367–374
    [Google Scholar]
  47. Masover G. K., Hayflick L. 1973; Growth of T-strain mycoplasmas in media without added urea. Ann. N. Y. Acad. Sci 225:118–130
    [Google Scholar]
  48. Purcell R. H., Taylor-Robinson D., Wong D., Chanock R. M. 1966; Color test for the measurement of antibody to T-strain mycoplasmas. J. Bacteriol 92:6–12
    [Google Scholar]
  49. Purcell R. H., Wong D., Chanock R. M., Taylor-Robinson D., Canchola J., Valdesuso J. Significance of antibody to mycoplasma as measured by metabolic-inhibition technique. Ann. N. Y. Acad. Sci. 143:664–675
    [Google Scholar]
  50. Razin S., Valdesuso J., Purcell R. H., Chanock R. M. 1970; Electrophoretic analysis of cell proteins of T-strain mycoplasmas isolated from man. J. Bacteriol 103:702–706
    [Google Scholar]
  51. Romano N., Smith P. F., Mayberry W. R. 1972; The lipids of a T-strain of mycoplasm. J. acterioL 109:565–569
    [Google Scholar]
  52. Rottem S., Pfendt E. A., Hayflick L. 1971; Sterol requirements of T-strain mycoplasmaS. J. Bacteriol 105:323–330
    [Google Scholar]
  53. Shepard M. C. 1954; The recovery of pleuropneumonia-like organisms from Negro men with and without nongonococcal urethritis. Amer. J. Syph. Gonor. Vener. Di 38:113–124
    [Google Scholar]
  54. Shepard M. C. 1956; T-form colonies of pleuropneumonialike organisms. J. Bacteriol 71:362–369
    [Google Scholar]
  55. Shepard M. C. 1957; Visualization and morphology of pleuropneumonialike organisms in clinical material. J. Bacteriol 73:162–171
    [Google Scholar]
  56. Shepard M. C. 1966; Human mycoplasma infections. Health Lab. Sci 3:163–169
    [Google Scholar]
  57. Shepard M. C. 1967; Cultivation and properties of T-strains of mycoplasma associated with nongonococcal urethritis. Ann. N. Y. Acad. Sci 143:505–514
    [Google Scholar]
  58. Shepard M. C. 1969 Fundamental biology of the T-strain. In Hayflick L. (ed.) The mycoplasmatales and the L-phase of bacteria Appleton- Century-Crofts; New York:
    [Google Scholar]
  59. Shepard M. C. 1970; Nongonococcal urethritis associated with human strains of “T” mycoplasmas. J. Amer. Med. Ass 211:1335–1340
    [Google Scholar]
  60. Shepard M. C. 1973; T-strain mycoplasmas as a cause of urethritis. Epidemic venereal disease. Proc. Second Int. Vener. Dis. Symp.St. Louis Missouri, 1972 p. 83–87
    [Google Scholar]
  61. Shepard M. C. 1973; Differential methods for identification of T-mycoplasmas based on demonstration of urease. J. Infect. Dis 127:(suppl)S22–S25
    [Google Scholar]
  62. Shepard M. C., Howard D. R. 1970; Identification of “T” mycoplasmas in primary agar cultures by means of a direct test for urease. Ann. N. Y. Acad. Sci 174:809–819
    [Google Scholar]
  63. Shepard M. C., Lunceford C. D. 1965; Effect of pH on human mycoplasma strains.. J. Bacteriol 89:265–270
    [Google Scholar]
  64. Shepard M. C., Lunceford C. D. 1967; Occurrence of urease in T-strains of mycoplasma. J. Bacteriol. 93:1513–1520
    [Google Scholar]
  65. Shepard M. C., Lunceford C. D. 1965; Urease color test medium U-9 for the detection and identification of “T” mycoplasmas in clinical material. Appl. Microbiol 20:539–543
    [Google Scholar]
  66. Shepard M. C., Lunceford C. D., Baker R. L. 1966; T-strain mycoplasma. Selective inhibition by erythromycin in vitro. Brit. J. Vener. Dis 42:21–24
    [Google Scholar]
  67. Shipley A. S., Bowman J., Connor J. J. 1968; T-strain mycoplasmas in non-specific urethritis. Med. J. Aust 1:794–796
    [Google Scholar]
  68. Somerson N., Taylor-Robinson D., Chanock R. M. 1963; Hemolysin production as an aid in the identification and quantitation of Eaton agent (Mycoplasma pneumoniae). . Amer. J. Hy 77:122–128
    [Google Scholar]
  69. Sompolinsky D., Solomon F., Leiba H., Caspi E., Lewinsohn G., Almog C. 1971; Puerperal sepsis due to T-strain mycoplasma. Israel J. Med. Sc 7:745–748
    [Google Scholar]
  70. Sueltmann S., Allen V., Inhorn S. L., Benforado J. M. 1971; Study of mycoplasma in university students with non-gonococcal urethritis. Health Lab. Sci 8:62–66
    [Google Scholar]
  71. Tan R. Tan., Markham J. G. 1971; Feline T-strain mycoplasma. Jap. J. Exp. Me 41:247–248
    [Google Scholar]
  72. Taylor-Robinson D., Purcell R. H. 1966; Mycoplasmas of the human urogenital tract and oropharynx and their possible role in disease: a review with some recent observations. Proc. Roy. Soc. Med 59:1112–1116
    [Google Scholar]
  73. Taylor-Robinson D., Haig D. A., Williams M. H. 1967; Bovine T-strain mycoplasma. Ann. N. Y. Acad. Sci 143:517–518
    [Google Scholar]
  74. Taylor-Robinson D., Williams M. H., Haig D. A. 1968; The isolation and comparative biological and physical characteristics of T-mycoplasmas of cattle. J. Gen. Microbiol 54:33–46
    [Google Scholar]
  75. Taylor-Robinson D., Addey J. P., Goodwin C. S. 1969; Comparison of techniques for the isolation of T-strain mycoplasmas. Nature (London) 222:274–275
    [Google Scholar]
  76. Taylor-Robinson D., Thomas M., Dawson P. L. 1969; The isolation of T-mycoplasmas from the urogenital tract of bulls. J. Med. Microbiol 2:527–533
    [Google Scholar]
  77. Taylor-Robinson D., Martin-Bourgon C., Watanabe T., Addey J. P. 1971; Isolation of T-mycoplasmas from dogs and squirrel monkeys: biological and serological comparison with those isolated from man and cattles. J. Gen. Microbiol 68:97–107
    [Google Scholar]
  78. Weibull C., Hammarberg K. 1962; Occurrence of catalase in pleuropneumonia-like organisms and bacterial L-forms. J. Bacteriol 84:520–525
    [Google Scholar]
  79. Woodson B. A., McCarty K. S., Shepard M. C. 1965; Arginine metabolism in mycoplasma and infected strain L-929 fibroblasts. Arch. Biochem 109:364–371
    [Google Scholar]
http://instance.metastore.ingenta.com/content/journal/ijsem/10.1099/00207713-24-2-160
Loading
/content/journal/ijsem/10.1099/00207713-24-2-160
Loading

Data & Media loading...

Most cited this month Most Cited RSS feed

This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Approval was a Success
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error