1887

Abstract

A novel species of the genus was recovered during surveys of stream and nursery irrigation water in Maryland, Massachusetts, North Carolina, Virginia and West Virginia in the USA. The novel species is heterothallic, and all examined isolates were A mating type. It produced rare ornamented oogonia and amphigynous antheridia when paired with A mating type testers of and . Sporangia of this novel species were non-papillate and non-caducous. Thin-walled intercalary chlamydospores were abundant in hemp seed agar and carrot agar, while they were produced only rarely in aged cultures grown in clarified V8 juice agar. Phylogenetic analyses based on sequences of the internal transcribed spacer region and the β-tubulin and mitochondrial cytochrome- oxidase 1 () genes indicated that the novel species is phylogenetically close to in Phytophthora clade 10. The novel species has morphological and molecular features that are distinct from those of other species in Phytophthora clade 10. It is formally described here as sp. nov. Description of this unique clade-10 species is important for understanding the phylogeny and evolution of Phytophthora clade 10.

Loading

Article metrics loading...

/content/journal/ijsem/10.1099/ijsem.0.000800
2016-02-01
2020-08-13
Loading full text...

Full text loading...

/deliver/fulltext/ijsem/66/2/845.html?itemId=/content/journal/ijsem/10.1099/ijsem.0.000800&mimeType=html&fmt=ahah

References

  1. Adl S. M., Simpson A. G. B, Farmer M. A., Andersen R. A., Anderson O. R., Barta J. R., Bowser S. S., Brugerolle G., Fensome R. A., other authors. 2005; The new higher level classification of eukaryotes with emphasis on the taxonomy of protists. J Eukaryot Microbiol52:399–451 [CrossRef][PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  2. Blair J. E., Coffey M. D., Park S.-Y., Geiser D. M., Kang S.. 2008; A multi-locus phylogeny for Phytophthora utilizing markers derived from complete genome sequences. Fungal Genet Biol45:266–277 [CrossRef][PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  3. Brasier C. M., Cooke D. E. L, Duncan J. M., Hansen E. M.. 2003; Multiple new phenotypic taxa from trees and riparian ecosystems in Phytophthora gonapodyides-P. megasperma ITS clade 6, which tend to be high-temperature tolerant and either inbreeding or sterile. Mycol Res107:277–290 [CrossRef][PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  4. Brasier C. M., Beales P. A., Kirk S. A., Denman S., Rose J.. 2005; Phytophthora kernoviae sp. nov., an invasive pathogen causing bleeding stem lesions on forest trees and foliar necrosis of ornamentals in the UK. Mycol Res109:853–859 [CrossRef][PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  5. Català S., Pérez-Sierra A., Abad-Campos P.. 2015; The use of genus-specific amplicon pyrosequencing to assess Phytophthora species diversity using eDNA from soil and water in Northern Spain. PLoS One10:e0119311 [CrossRef][PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  6. Chowdappa P., Madhura S., Kumar B. J. N, Kumar S. P. M, Hema K. R.. 2014; Phytophthora boehmeriae revealed as the dominant pathogen responsible for severe foliar blight of Capsicum annuum in South India. Plant Dis98:90–98 [CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  7. Cooke D. E. L, Drenth A., Duncan J. M., Wagels G., Brasier C. M.. 2000; A molecular phylogeny of Phytophthora and related oomycetes. Fungal Genet Biol30:17–32 [CrossRef][PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  8. Crous P. W., Groenewald J. Z., Shivas R. G., Edwards J., Seifert K. A., Alfenas A. C., Alfenas R. F., Burgess T. I., Carnegie A. J., other authors. 2011; Fungal Planet description sheets: 69–91. Persoonia26:108–156 [CrossRef][PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  9. Crous P. W., Summerell B. A., Shivas R. G., Burgess T. I., Decock C. A., Dreyer L. L., Granke L. L., Guest D. I., Hardy G. E. S, other authors. 2012; Fungal Planet description sheets: 107–127. Persoonia28:138–182 [CrossRef][PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  10. Crous P. W., Wingfield M. J., Schumacher R. K., Summerell B. A., Giraldo A., Gené J., Guarro J., Wanasinghe D. N., Hyde K. D., other authors. 2014; Fungal Planet description sheets: 281–319. Persoonia33:212–289 [CrossRef][PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  11. Erwin D. C., Ribeiro O. K.. 1996; Phytophthora Diseases Worldwide. St. Paul, MN: American Phytopathological Society;
    [Google Scholar]
  12. Gallegly M. E., Hong C.. 2008; Phytophthora: Identifying Species by Morphology and DNA Fingerprints. St. Paul, MN: American Phytopathological Society;
    [Google Scholar]
  13. Hansen E. M., Reeser P. W., Sutton W.. 2012; Phytophthora borealis and Phytophthora riparia, new species in Phytophthora ITS clade 6. Mycologia104:1133–1142 [CrossRef][PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  14. Hansen E. M., Reeser P., Sutton W., Brasier C. M.. 2015; Redesignation of Phytophthora taxon Pgchlamydo as Phytophthora chlamydospora sp. nov. N Am Fungi10:1–14
    [Google Scholar]
  15. Hong C. X., Gallegly M. E., Richardson P. A., Kong P., Moorman G. W., Lea-Cox J. D., Ross D. S.. 2010; Phytophthora hydropathica, a new pathogen identified from irrigation water, Rhododendron catawbiense and Kalmia latifolia. Plant Pathol59:913–921 [CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  16. Hong C., Gallegly M. E., Richardson P. A., Kong P.. 2011; Phytophthora pini Leonian resurrected to distinct species status. Mycologia103:351–360 [CrossRef][PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  17. Hong C., Richardson P. A., Hao W., Ghimire S. R., Kong P., Moorman G. W., Lea-Cox J. D., Ross D. S.. 2012; Phytophthora aquimorbida sp. nov. and Phytophthora taxon ‘aquatilis’ recovered from irrigation reservoirs and a stream in Virginia, USA. Mycologia104:1097–1108 [CrossRef][PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  18. Jeffers S. N., Martin S. B.. 1986; Comparison of two media selective for Phytophthora and Pythium species. Plant Dis70:1038–1043 [CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  19. Jung T., Burgess T. I.. 2009; Re-evaluation of Phytophthora citricola isolates from multiple woody hosts in Europe and North America reveals a new species, Phytophthora plurivora sp. nov.. Persoonia22:95–110 [CrossRef][PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  20. Jung T., Nechwatal J.. 2008; Phytophthora gallica sp. nov., a new species from rhizosphere soil of declining oak and reed stands in France and Germany. Mycol Res112:1195–1205 [CrossRef][PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  21. Jung T., Stukely M. J. C, Hardy G. E. S. J., White D., Paap T., Dunstan W. A., Burgess T. I.. 2011; Multiple new Phytophthora species from ITS clade 6 associated with natural ecosystems in Australia: evolutionary and ecological implications. Persoonia26:13–39 [CrossRef][PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  22. Katoh K., Standley D. M.. 2013; mafft multiple sequence alignment software version 7: improvements in performance and usability. Mol Biol Evol30:772–780 [CrossRef][PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  23. Katoh K., Toh H.. 2008; Improved accuracy of multiple ncRNA alignment by incorporating structural information into a mafft-based framework. BMC Bioinformatics9:212 [CrossRef][PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  24. Katoh K., Kuma K., Toh H., Miyata T.. 2005; mafft version 5: improvement in accuracy of multiple sequence alignment. Nucleic Acids Res33:511–518 [CrossRef][PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  25. Ko W. H.. 1978; Heterothallic Phytophthora: evidence for hormonal regulation of sexual reproduction. J Gen Microbiol107:15–18 [CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  26. Kroon L. P. N. M., Bakker F. T., van den Bosch G. B. M, Bonants P. J. M, Flier W. G.. 2004; Phylogenetic analysis of Phytophthora species based on mitochondrial and nuclear DNA sequences. Fungal Genet Biol41:766–782 [CrossRef][PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  27. Kroon L. P. N. M., Brouwer H., de Cock A. W. A. M., Govers F.. 2012; The genus Phytophthora anno 2012. Phytopathology102:348–364 [CrossRef][PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  28. Loyd A. L., Benson D. M., Ivors K. L.. 2014; Phytophthora populations in nursery irrigation water in relationship to pathogenicity and infection frequency of Rhododendron and Pieris. Plant Dis98:1213–1220 [CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  29. MacDonald J. D., Alishtayeh M. S., Kabashima J., Stites J.. 1994; Occurrence of Phytophthora species in recirculated nursery irrigation effluents. Plant Dis78:607–611 [CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  30. Martin F. N., Abad Z. G., Balci Y., Ivors K.. 2012; Identification and detection of Phytophthora: reviewing our progress, identifying our needs. Plant Dis96:1080–1103 [CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  31. Martin F. N., Blair J. E., Coffey M. D.. 2014; A combined mitochondrial and nuclear multilocus phylogeny of the genus Phytophthora. Fungal Genet Biol66:19–32 [CrossRef][PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  32. Nechwatal J., Bakonyi J., Cacciola S. O., Cooke D. E. L, Jung T., Nagy Z. A., Vannini A., Vettraino A. M., Brasier C. M.. 2013; The morphology, behaviour and molecular phylogeny of Phytophthora taxon Salixsoil and its redesignation as Phytophthora lacustris sp. nov. Plant Pathol62:355–369 [CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  33. Nelson S. C., Abad Z. G.. 2010; Phytophthora morindae, a new species causing black flag disease on noni (Morinda citrifolia L) in Hawaii. Mycologia102:122–134 [CrossRef][PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  34. Core Team R. 2015; R: a Language and Environment for Statistical Computing Vienna: R Foundation for Statistical Computing;
    [Google Scholar]
  35. Reeser P., Sutton W., Hansen E.. 2013; Phytophthora pluvialis, a new species from mixed tanoak-Douglas-fir forests of western Oregon, U.S.A. N Am Fungi8:1–8 [CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  36. Rizzo D. M., Garbelotto M., Davidson J. M., Slaughter G. W., Koike S. T.. 2002; Phytophthora ramorum as the cause of extensive mortality of Quercus spp. and Lithocarpus densiflorus in California. Plant Dis86:205–214 [CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  37. Rizzo D. M., Garbelotto M., Hansen E. M.. 2005; Phytophthora ramorum: integrative research and management of an emerging pathogen in California and Oregon forests. Annu Rev Phytopathol43:309–335 [CrossRef][PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  38. Scarlett K., Daniel R., Shuttleworth L. A., Roy B., Bishop T. F. A, Guest D. I.. 2015; Phytophthora in the Gondwana Rainforests of Australia World Heritage Area. Australas Plant Pathol44:335–348 [CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  39. Sims L. L., Sutton W., Reeser P., Hansen E. M.. 2015; The Phytophthora species assemblage and diversity in riparian alder ecosystems of western Oregon, USA. Mycologia107:889–902 [CrossRef][PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  40. Tamura K., Nei M.. 1993; Estimation of the number of nucleotide substitutions in the control region of mitochondrial DNA in humans and chimpanzees. Mol Biol Evol10:512–526[PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  41. Tamura K., Stecher G., Peterson D., Filipski A., Kumar S.. 2013; mega6: molecular evolutionary genetics analysis version 6.0. Mol Biol Evol30:2725–2729 [CrossRef][PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  42. Warnes G. R., Bolker B., Bonebakker L., Gentleman R., Liaw W. H. A, Lumley T., Maechler M., Magnusson A., Moeller S., other authors. 2015;https://cran.r-project.org/web/packages/gplots/gplots.pdf gplots: various R programming tools for plotting datahttps://cran.r-project.org/web/packages/gplots/gplots.pdf
    [Google Scholar]
  43. Waterhouse G. M.. 1963; Key to the Species of Phytophthora de Bary (Mycological Papers no. 92) Kew: Commonwealth Mycological Institute;
    [Google Scholar]
  44. Weir B. S., Paderes E. P., Anand N., Uchida J. Y., Pennycook S. R., Bellgard S. E., Beever R. E.. 2015; A taxonomic revision of Phytophthora clade 5 including two new species, Phytophthora agathidicida and P. cocois. Phytotaxa205:21–38 [CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  45. Werres S., Marwitz R., Man in't Veld W. A., De Cock A. W. A. M., Bonants P. J. M, De Weerdt M., Themann K., Ilieva E., Baayen R. P.. 2001; Phytophthora ramorum sp. nov., a new pathogen on Rhododendron Viburnum. Mycol Res105:1155–1165 [CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  46. Yang X.. 2014; New Species and Phylogeny of the Genus Phytophthora Virginia Tech: Blacksburg, VA;
    [Google Scholar]
  47. Yang X., Hong C. X.. 2013; Phytophthora virginiana sp. nov., a high-temperature tolerant species from irrigation water in Virginia. Mycotaxon126:167–176 [CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  48. Yang X., Copes W. E., Hong C. X.. 2013; Phytophthora mississippiae sp. nov., a new species recovered from irrigation reservoirs at a plant nursery in Mississippi. J Plant Pathol Microbiol4:180 [CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  49. Yang X., Copes W. E., Hong C.. 2014a; Two novel species representing a new clade and cluster of Phytophthora. Fungal Biol118:72–82 [CrossRef][PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  50. Yang X., Gallegly M. E., Hong C.. 2014b; A high-temperature tolerant species in clade 9 of the genus Phytophthora: P. hydrogena sp. nov. Mycologia106:57–65 [CrossRef][PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  51. Yang X., Richardson P. A., Hong C.. 2014c; Phytophthora ×  stagnum nothosp. nov., a new hybrid from irrigation reservoirs at ornamental plant nurseries in Virginia. PLoS One9:e103450 [CrossRef][PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
http://instance.metastore.ingenta.com/content/journal/ijsem/10.1099/ijsem.0.000800
Loading
/content/journal/ijsem/10.1099/ijsem.0.000800
Loading

Data & Media loading...

Supplements

Supplementary Data

PDF

Most cited this month Most Cited RSS feed

This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Approval was a Success
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error