While studying the taxonomy of six lactic acid bacterium isolates from Finnish porcine intestine and faeces, the taxonomic positions of type strain DSM 16698 and strain AD5 based on comparative 16S rRNA sequence analysis were found to be controversial, as they showed high similarity to strains. Therefore, the taxonomy of these species was addressed in a polyphasic taxonomy study that included, in addition to re-evaluating the 16S rRNA gene sequence and DNA–DNA reassociation results, multilocus sequence analysis (MLSA) of the housekeeping genes encoding the phenylalanyl-tRNA synthase alpha subunit () and RNA polymerase alpha subunit () as well as numerical analysis of dIII and RI ribotypes. 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis demonstrated a very high similarity between the and type and reference strains and representative Finnish porcine isolates (99.6–99.9 %). The MLSA data showed the close phylogenetic relationship of these strains; and gene sequence similarities were 98.5–100 % and 99.6–99.8 %, respectively. Numerical analyses of dIII/RI ribotypes placed these strains in a single cluster by both enzymes. Finally, the DNA–DNA reassociation experiments revealed high reassociation levels (higher than 79 %) between the strains. These results indicate that DSM 16698, AD5 and the related porcine lactobacilli strains from Finland constitute a single species, , and that the name should be considered as a later synonym of .


Article metrics loading...

Loading full text...

Full text loading...



  1. Björkroth, K. J. & Korkeala, H. J.(1996). Evaluation of Lactobacillus sakei contamination in vacuum-packaged sliced cooked meat products by ribotyping. J Food Prot 59, 398–401. [Google Scholar]
  2. De Ley, J., Cattoir, H. & Reynaerts, A.(1970). Quantitative measurement of DNA hybridization from renaturation rates. Eur J Biochem 12, 133–142.[CrossRef] [Google Scholar]
  3. Fujisawa, T., Benno, Y., Yaeshima, T. & Mitsuoka, T.(1992). Taxonomic study of the Lactobacillus acidophilus group, with recognition of Lactobacillus gallinarum sp. nov. and Lactobacillus johnsonii sp. nov. and synonymy of Lactobacillus acidophilus group A3 ( Johnson et al. 1980 ) with the type strain of Lactobacillus amylovorus ( Nakamura 1981 ). Int J Syst Bacteriol 42, 487–491.[CrossRef] [Google Scholar]
  4. Gillis, M., De Ley, J. & De Cleene, M.(1970). The determination of molecular weight of bacterial genome DNA from renaturation rates. Eur J Biochem 12, 143–153.[CrossRef] [Google Scholar]
  5. Huß, V. A. R., Festl, H. & Schleifer, K. H.(1983). Studies on the spectrophotometric determination of DNA hybridization from renaturation rates. Syst Appl Microbiol 4, 184–192.[CrossRef] [Google Scholar]
  6. Hutton, J. R.(1977). Renaturation kinetics and thermal stability of DNA in aqueous solutions of formamide and urea. Nucleic Acids Res 4, 3537–3555.[CrossRef] [Google Scholar]
  7. Jakava-Viljanen, M. & Palva, A.(2007). Characterization of Lactobacillus species carrying surface (S) layer protein isolated from porcine intestine and faeces and their adhesion to different host tissues. Vet Microbiol 124, 264–273.[CrossRef] [Google Scholar]
  8. Johnson, J. L., Phelps, C. F., Cummins, C. S., London, J. & Gasser, F.(1980). Taxonomy of the Lactobacillus acidophilus group. Int J Syst Bacteriol 30, 53–68.[CrossRef] [Google Scholar]
  9. Konstantinov, S. R., Poznanski, E., Fuentes, S., Akkermans, A. D., Smidt, H. & de Vos, W. M.(2006).Lactobacillus sobrius sp. nov., abundant in the intestine of weaning piglets. Int J Syst Evol Microbiol 56, 29–32.[CrossRef] [Google Scholar]
  10. Lapage, S. P., Sneath, P. H. A., Lessel, E. F., Skerman, V. B. D., Seelinger, H. P. R. & Clark, W. A. (editors)(1992).International Code of Nomenclature of Bacteria (1990 Revision). Bacteriological Code. Washington, DC: American Society for Microbiology.
  11. Lauer, E., Helming, C. & Kandler, O.(1980). Heterogeneity of the species Lactobacillus acidophilus (Moro) Hansen and Mocquot as revealed by biochemical characteristics and DNA-DNA hybridization. Zentralbl Bakteriol Mikrobiol Hyg 1 Abt Orig C 1, 150–168. [Google Scholar]
  12. Nakamura, L. K.(1981).Lactobacillus amylovorus, a new starch-hydrolyzing species from cattle waste-corn fermentations. Int J Syst Bacteriol 31, 56–63.[CrossRef] [Google Scholar]
  13. Naser, S. M.(2006).A novel robust identification system of the lactic acid bacteria Enterococcus, Lactobacillus and Streptococcus based on pheS, rpoA and atpA multilocus sequence analysis. PhD thesis, Ghent University, Belgium.
  14. Naser, S. M., Thompson, F. L., Hoste, B., Gevers, D., Dawyndt, P., Vancanneyt, M. & Swings, J.(2005). Application of multilocus sequence analysis (MLSA) for rapid identification of Enterococcus species based on rpoA and pheS genes. Microbiology 151, 2141–2150.[CrossRef] [Google Scholar]
  15. Naser, S. M., Vancanneyt, M., Snauwaert, C., Vrancken, G., Hoste, B., De Vuyst, L. & Swings, J.(2006). Reclassification of Lactobacillus amylophilus LMG 11400 and NRRL B-4435 as Lactobacillus amylotrophicus sp. nov. Int J Syst Evol Microbiol 56, 2523–2527.[CrossRef] [Google Scholar]
  16. Pitcher, D. G., Saunders, N. A. & Owen, R. J.(1989). Rapid extraction of bacterial genomic DNA with guanidium thiocyanate. Lett Appl Microbiol 8, 151–156.[CrossRef] [Google Scholar]
  17. Ryu, C. S., Czajka, J. W., Sakamoto, M. & Benno, Y.(2001). Characterization of the Lactobacillus casei group and the Lactobacillus acidophilus group by automated ribotyping. Microbiol Immunol 45, 271–275.[CrossRef] [Google Scholar]

Data & Media loading...


Phylogenetic trees trees obtained with 16S rRNA , and gene sequences of selected strains. [PDF](750 KB)


DNA relatedness among strains and phylogenetically closely related species. [PDF](17 KB)


Most cited this month Most Cited RSS feed

This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Approval was a Success
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error