Strain KV-677, a Gram-positive, aerobic, motile, rod-shaped bacterium, was isolated from park soil in Tokyo, Japan, and characterized. It grew well at 15–30 °C on nutrient agar and colonies were pale yellow. The cell-wall peptidoglycan contained diaminobutyric acid, glycine, alanine and glutamic acid and the muramic acid acyl type was acetyl. The predominant menaquinone was MK-12. Mycolic acids were not detected. The DNA G+C content was 70 mol%. 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis revealed that strain KV-677 fell within the cluster of the family and formed a separate lineage joining the genera , , and , showing 95.5–96.9 % sequence similarities with the type strains of the type species of the above genera. However, strain KV-677 clearly differed from these and other genera with relatively high sequence similarity in its chemotaxonomic characteristics. Therefore, it is proposed that strain KV-677 represents a novel species in a new genus, gen. nov., sp. nov., in the family . The type strain of is KV-677 (=NRRL B-24538 =NBRC 102123).


Article metrics loading...

Loading full text...

Full text loading...



  1. Behrendt, U., Ulrich, A., Schumann, P., Naumann, D. & Suzuki, K.(2002). Diversity of grass-associated Microbacteriaceae isolated from the phyllosphere and litter layer after mulching the sward; polyphasic characterization of Subtercola pratensis sp. nov., Curtobacterium herbarum sp. nov. and Plantibacter flavus gen. nov., sp. nov. Int J Syst Evol Microbiol 52, 1441–1454.[CrossRef] [Google Scholar]
  2. Collins, M. D., Goodfellow, M. & Minnikin, D. E.(1977). Distribution of menaquinones in actinomycetes and corynebacteria. J Gen Microbiol 100, 221–230.[CrossRef] [Google Scholar]
  3. Davis, M. J., Gillaspsie, A. G., Jr, Vidaver, A. K. & Harris, R. W.(1984).Clavibacter: a new genus containing some phytopathogenic coryneform bacteria, including Clavibacter xyli subsp. xyli sp. nov., subsp. nov. and Clavibacter xyli subsp. cynodontis subsp. nov., pathogens that cause ratoon stunting disease of sugarcane and Bermudagrass stunting disease. Int J Syst Bacteriol 34, 107–117.[CrossRef] [Google Scholar]
  4. Evtushenko, L. I., Dorofeeva, L. V., Subbotin, S. A., Cole, J. R. & Tiedje, J. M.(2000).Leifsonia poae gen. nov., sp. nov., isolated from nematode galls on Poa annua, and reclassification of ‘Corynebacterium aquaticum’ Leifson 1962 as Leifsonia aquatica (ex Leifson 1962) gen. nov., nom. rev., comb. nov. and Clavibacter xyli Davis et al. 1984 with two subspecies as Leifsonia xyli ( Davis et al. 1984 ) gen. nov., comb. nov. Int J Syst Evol Microbiol 50, 371–380.[CrossRef] [Google Scholar]
  5. Evtushenko, L. I., Dorofeeva, L. V., Dobrovolskaya, T. G., Streshinskaya, G. M., Subbotin, S. A. & Tiedje, J. M.(2001).Agreia bicolorata gen. nov., sp. nov., to accommodate actinobacteria isolated from narrow reed grass infected by the nematode Heteroanguina graminophila. Int J Syst Evol Microbiol 51, 2073–2079.[CrossRef] [Google Scholar]
  6. Evtushenko, L. I., Dorofeeva, L. V., Krausova, V. I., Gavrish, E. Y., Yashina, S. G. & Takeuchi, M.(2002).Okibacterium fritillariae gen. nov., sp. nov., a novel genus of the family Microbacteriaceae. Int J Syst Evol Microbiol 52, 987–993.[CrossRef] [Google Scholar]
  7. Felsenstein, J.(1981). Evolutionary trees from DNA sequences: a maximum likelihood approach. J Mol Evol 17, 368–379.[CrossRef] [Google Scholar]
  8. Felsenstein, J.(1985). Confidence limits on phylogenies: an approach using the bootstrap. Evolution 39, 783–791.[CrossRef] [Google Scholar]
  9. Gledhill, W. E. & Casida, L. E.(1969). Predominant catalase-negative soil bacteria. III. Agromyces, gen. n., microorganisms intermediary to Actinomyces and Nocardia. Appl Microbiol 18, 340–349. [Google Scholar]
  10. Groth, I., Schumann, P., Weiss, N., Martin, K. & Rainey, F. A.(1996).Agrococcus jenensis gen. nov., sp. nov., a new genus of actinomycetes with diaminobutyric acid in the cell wall. Int J Syst Bacteriol 46, 234–239.[CrossRef] [Google Scholar]
  11. Han, S. K., Nedashkovskaya, O. I., Mikhailov, V. V., Kim, S. B. & Bae, K. S.(2003).Salinibacterium amurskyense gen. nov., sp. nov., a novel genus of the family Microbacteriaceae from the marine environment. Int J Syst Evol Microbiol 53, 2061–2066.[CrossRef] [Google Scholar]
  12. Kämpfer, P., Rainey, F. A., Andersson, M. A. Q., Nurmiaho Lassila, E.-L., Ulrych, U., Busse, H. J., Weiss, N., Mikkola, R. & Salkinoja-Salonen, M.(2000).Frigoribacterium faeni gen. nov., sp. nov., a novel psychrophilic genus of the family Microbacteriaceae. Int J Syst Evol Microbiol 50, 355–363.[CrossRef] [Google Scholar]
  13. Kawamoto, I., Oka, T. & Nara, T.(1981). Cell wall composition of Micromonospora olivoasterospora, Micromonospora sagamiensis, and related organisms. J Bacteriol 146, 527–534. [Google Scholar]
  14. Kimura, M.(1980). A simple method for estimating evolutionary rates of base substitutions through comparative studies of nucleotide sequences. J Mol Evol 16, 111–120.[CrossRef] [Google Scholar]
  15. Lee, S. D.(2007).Labedella gwakjiensis gen. nov., sp. nov., a novel actinomycete of the family Microbacteriaceae. Int J Syst Evol Microbiol 57, 2498–2502.[CrossRef] [Google Scholar]
  16. Lin, Y.-C., Uemori, K., de Briel, D. A., Arunpairojana, V. & Yokota, A.(2004).Zimmermannella helvola gen. nov., sp. nov., Zimmermannella alba sp. nov., Zimmermannella bifida sp. nov., Zimmermannella faecalis sp. nov. and Leucobacter albus sp. nov., novel members of the family Microbacteriaceae. Int J Syst Evol Microbiol 54, 1669–1676.[CrossRef] [Google Scholar]
  17. Manaia, C. M., Nogales, B., Weiss, N. & Nunes, O. C.(2004).Gulosibacter molinativorax gen. nov., sp. nov., a molinate-degrading bacterium, and classification of ‘Brevibacterium helvolum’ DSM 20419 as Pseudoclavibacter helvolus gen. nov., sp. nov. Int J Syst Evol Microbiol 54, 783–789.[CrossRef] [Google Scholar]
  18. Männistö, M. K., Schumann, P., Rainey, F. A., Kämpfer, P., Tsitko, I., Tiirola, M. A. & Salkinoja-Salonen, M. S.(2000).Subtercola boreus gen. nov., sp. nov. and Subtercola frigoramans sp. nov., two new psychrophilic actinobacteria isolated from boreal groundwater. Int J Syst Evol Microbiol 50, 1731–1739. [Google Scholar]
  19. Minnikin, D. E., Patel, P. V., Alshamaony, L. & Goodfellow, M.(1977). Polar lipid composition in the classification of Nocardia and related bacteria. Int J Syst Bacteriol 27, 104–117.[CrossRef] [Google Scholar]
  20. Park, Y.-H., Suzuki, K., Yim, D.-G., Lee, K. C., Kim, E., Yoon, J., Kim, S., Kho, Y. H., Goodfellow, M. & Komagata, K.(1993). Suprageneric classification of peptidoglycan group B actinomycetes by nucleotide sequencing of 5S ribosomal RNA. Antonie van Leeuwenhoek 64, 307–313. [Google Scholar]
  21. Saito, H. & Miura, K.(1963). Preparation of transforming deoxyribonucleic acid by phenol treatment. Biochim Biophys Acta 72, 619–629.[CrossRef] [Google Scholar]
  22. Saitou, N. & Nei, M.(1987). The neighbor-joining method: a new method for reconstructing phylogenetic trees. Mol Biol Evol 4, 406–425. [Google Scholar]
  23. Sasaki, J., Chijimatsu, M. & Suzuki, K.(1998). Taxonomic significance of 2,4-diaminobutyric acid isomers in the cell wall peptidoglycan of actinomycetes and reclassification of Clavibacter toxicus as Rathayibacter toxicus comb. nov. Int J Syst Bacteriol 48, 403–410.[CrossRef] [Google Scholar]
  24. Schumann, P., Behrendt, U., Ulrich, A & Suzuki, K.(2003). Reclassification of Subtercola pratensis Behrendt et al. 2002 as Agreia pratensis comb. nov. Int J Syst Evol Microbiol 53, 2041–2044.[CrossRef] [Google Scholar]
  25. Sheridan, P. P., Loveland-Curtze, J., Miteva, V. I. & Brenchley, J. E.(2003).Rhodoglobus vestalii gen. nov., sp. nov., a novel psychrophilic organism isolated from an Antarctic Dry Valley lake. Int J Syst Evol Microbiol 53, 985–994.[CrossRef] [Google Scholar]
  26. Stackebrandt, E., Rainey, F. A. & Ward-Rainey, N. L.(1997). Proposal for a new hierarchic classification system, Actinobacteria classis nov. Int J Syst Bacteriol 47, 479–491.[CrossRef] [Google Scholar]
  27. Suzuki, K., Sasaki, J., Uramoto, M., Nakase, T. & Komagata, K.(1997).Cryobacterium psychrophilum gen. nov., sp. nov., nom. rev., comb. nov., an obligately psychrophilic actinomycete to accommodate “Curtobacterium psychrophilum” Inoue and Komagata 1976. Int J Syst Bacteriol 47, 474–478.[CrossRef] [Google Scholar]
  28. Suzuki, K., Suzuki, M., Uramoto, M., Sasaki, J., Park, Y.-H. & Komagata, K.(1999).Leifsonia gen. nov., a genus for 2,4-diaminobutyric acid-containing actinomycetes to accommodate “Corynebacterium aquaticum” Leifson 1962 and Clavibacter xyli subsp. cynodontis Davis et al. 1984. J Gen Appl Microbiol 45, 253–262.[CrossRef] [Google Scholar]
  29. Takahashi, Y., Matsumoto, A., Seino, A., Ueno, J., Iwai, Y. & Ōmura, S.(2002).Streptomyces avermectinius sp. nov., an avermectin-producing strain. Int J Syst Evol Microbiol 52, 2163–2168.[CrossRef] [Google Scholar]
  30. Takeuchi, M. & Hatano, K.(1998). Union of the genera Microbacterium Orla-Jensen and Aureobacterium Collins et al. in a redefined genus Microbacterium. Int J Syst Bacteriol 48, 739–747.[CrossRef] [Google Scholar]
  31. Takeuchi, M., Weiss, N., Schumann, P. & Yokota, A.(1996).Leucobacter komagatae gen. nov., sp. nov., a new aerobic gram-positive, nonsporulating rod with 2,4-diaminobutyric acid in the cell wall. Int J Syst Bacteriol 46, 967–971.[CrossRef] [Google Scholar]
  32. Tamaoka, J. & Komagata, K.(1984). Determination of DNA base composition by reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography. FEMS Microbiol Lett 25, 125–128.[CrossRef] [Google Scholar]
  33. Tamaoka, J., Katayama-Fujimura, Y. & Kuraishi, H.(1983). Analysis of bacterial menaquinone mixtures by high performance liquid chromatography. J Appl Bacteriol 54, 31–36.[CrossRef] [Google Scholar]
  34. Thompson, J. D., Higgins, D. G. & Gibson, T. J.(1994).clustalw: improving the sensitivity of progressive multiple sequence alignment through sequence weighting, position-specific gap penalties and weight matrix choice. Nucleic Acids Res 22, 4673–4680.[CrossRef] [Google Scholar]
  35. Tiago, I., Pires, C., Mendes, V., Morais, P. V., da Costa, M. & Verissimo, A.(2005).Microcella putealis gen. nov., sp. nov., a Gram-positive alkaliphilic bacterium isolated from a nonsaline alkaline groundwater. Syst Appl Microbiol 28, 479–487.[CrossRef] [Google Scholar]
  36. Tomiyasu, I.(1982). Mycolic acid composition and thermally adaptative changes in Nocardia asteroides. J Bacteriol 151, 828–837. [Google Scholar]
  37. Tsukamoto, T., Takeuchi, M., Shida, O., Murata, H. & Shirata, A.(2001). Proposal of Mycetocola gen. nov. in the family Microbacteriaceae and three new species, Mycetocola saprophilus sp. nov., Mycetocola tolaasinivorans sp. nov. and Mycetocola lacteus sp. nov., isolated from cultivated mushroom, Pleurotus ostreatus. Int J Syst Evol Microbiol 51, 937–944.[CrossRef] [Google Scholar]
  38. Uchida, K. & Aida, K.(1977). Acyl type of bacterial cell wall: its simple identification by a colorimetric method. J Gen Appl Microbiol 23, 249–260.[CrossRef] [Google Scholar]
  39. Wieser, M., Schumann, P., Martin, K., Alterburger, P., Burghardt, J., Lubitz, W. & Busse, H.-J.(1999).Agrococcus citreus sp. nov., isolated from a medieval wall painting of the chapel of Castle Herberstein (Austria). Int J Syst Bacteriol 49, 1165–1170.[CrossRef] [Google Scholar]
  40. Yamada, K. & Komagata, K.(1972). Taxonomic studies on coryneform bacteria. IV. Morphological, cultural, biochemical and physiological characteristics. J Gen Appl Microbiol 18, 399–416.[CrossRef] [Google Scholar]
  41. Yoon, J.-H., Kang, S.-J., Schumann, P. & Oh, T.-K.(2006).Yonghaparkia alkaliphila gen. nov., sp. nov., a novel member of the family Microbacteriaceae isolated from an alkaline soil. Int J Syst Evol Microbiol 56, 2415–2420.[CrossRef] [Google Scholar]
  42. Yu, L., Takahashi, Y., Matsumoto, A., Seino, A., Iwai, Y. & Omura, S.(2002). Application of PCR for selection of Gram-positive bacteria with high DNA G+C content among new isolates. Actinomycetologica 16, 1–5.[CrossRef] [Google Scholar]
  43. Zgurskaya, H. I., Evtushenko, L. I., Akimov, N., Voyevoda, H. V., Dobrovolskaya, T. G., Lysak, L. V. & Kalakoutskii, L. V.(1992). Emended description of the genus Agromyces and description of Agromyces cerinus subsp. cerinus sp. nov., subsp. nov., Agromyces cerinus subsp. nitratus sp. nov., subsp. nov., Agromyces fucosus subsp. fucosus sp. nov., subsp. nov., and Agromyces fucosus subsp. hippuratus sp. nov., subsp. nov. Int J Syst Bacteriol 42, 635–641.[CrossRef] [Google Scholar]
  44. Zgurskaya, H. I., Evtushenko, L. I., Akimov, N. & Kalakoutskii, L. V.(1993).Rathayibacter gen. nov., including the species Rathayibacter rathayi comb. nov., Rathayibacter tritici comb. nov., Rathayibacter iranicus comb. nov., and six strains from annual grasses. Int J Syst Bacteriol 43, 143–149.[CrossRef] [Google Scholar]

Data & Media loading...


Scanning electron micrographs of cells of strain KV-677 cultured on nutrient agar for 8 h (left) and 10 days (right) at 27 °C. Bars, 1 µm.


Scanning electron micrographs of cells of strain KV-677 cultured on nutrient agar for 8 h (left) and 10 days (right) at 27 °C. Bars, 1 µm.

This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Approval was a Success
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error