1887

Abstract

A Gram-positive, spore-forming bacillus was isolated from a sample taken from an approximately 2000-year-old shaft-tomb located in the Mexican state of Jalisco, near the city of Tequila. Tentative identification using conventional biochemical analysis consistently identified the isolate as . DNA isolated from the tomb isolate, strain 10b, and closely related species was used to amplify a -specific portion of the highly conserved 16S rRNA gene and an internal region of the superoxide dismutase gene ( ). Trees derived from maximum-likelihood methods applied to the sequences yielded non-zero branch lengths between strain 10b and its closest relative, whereas a comparison of a -specific 546 bp amplicon of the 16S rRNA gene demonstrated 99 % similarity with . Although the 16S rRNA gene sequences of strain 10b and were 99 % similar, PFGE of I-digested DNA of strain 10b revealed a restriction profile that was considerably different from those of and other closely related species. Whereas qualitative differences in whole-cell fatty acids were not observed, significant quantitative differences were found to exist between strain 10b and each of the other closely related species examined. In addition, DNA–DNA hybridization studies demonstrated that strain 10b had a relatedness value of less than 70 % with and other closely related species. Evidence from the sequences, whole-cell fatty acid profiles and PFGE analysis, together with results from DNA–DNA hybridization studies, justify the classification of strain 10b as representing a distinct species, for which the name sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is 10b (=ATCC BAA-819=NCTC 13306).

Loading

Article metrics loading...

/content/journal/ijsem/10.1099/ijs.0.63946-0
2006-07-01
2020-01-21
Loading full text...

Full text loading...

/deliver/fulltext/ijsem/56/7/1475.html?itemId=/content/journal/ijsem/10.1099/ijs.0.63946-0&mimeType=html&fmt=ahah

References

  1. Ash, C., Farrow, J. A. E., Dorsch, M., Stackebrandt, E. & Collins, M. D. ( 1991a; ). Comparative analysis of Bacillus anthracis, Bacillus cereus, and related species on the basis of reverse transcriptase sequencing of 16S rRNA. Int J Syst Bacteriol 41, 343–346.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  2. Ash, C., Farrow, J. A. E., Wallbanks, S. & Collins, M. D. ( 1991b; ). Phylogenetic heterogeneity of the genus Bacillus revealed by comparative analysis of small-subunit-ribosomal RNA sequences. Lett Appl Microbiol 13, 202–206.
    [Google Scholar]
  3. Cano, R. J. & Borucki, M. K. ( 1995; ). Revival and identification of bacterial spores in 25- to 40-million-year-old Dominican amber. Science 268, 1060–1064.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  4. Cano, R. J., Borucki, M. K., Higby-Schweitzer, M., Poinar, H. N., Poinar, G. O., Jr & Pollard, K. J. ( 1994; ). Bacillus DNA in fossil bees: an ancient symbiosis? Appl Environ Microbiol 60, 2164–2167.
    [Google Scholar]
  5. Claus, D. & Berkeley, R. C. W. ( 1986; ). Genus Bacillus Cohn 1872, 174AL. In Bergey's Manual of Systematic Bacteriology, vol. 2, pp. 1105–1139. Edited by P. H. A. Sneath, N. S. Mair, M. E. Sharpe & J. G. Holt. Baltimore: Williams & Wilkins.
  6. Cohan, F. M., Roberts, M. S. & King, E. C. ( 1991; ). The potential for genetic exchange by transformation within a natural population of Bacillus subtilis. Evolution 45, 1393–1421.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  7. Cutting, S. M. & Vander Horn, P. B. ( 1990; ). Genetic analysis. In Molecular Biological Methods of Bacillus, pp. 27–74. Edited by C. R. Harwood & S. M. Cutting. Chichester: Wiley.
  8. Daffonchio, D., Borin, S., Frova, G., Manachini, P. L. & Sorlini, C. ( 1998; ). PCR fingerprinting of whole genomes: the spacers between the 16S and 23S rRNA genes and of intergenic tRNA gene regions reveal a different intraspecific genomic variability of Bacillus cereus and Bacillus licheniformis. Int J Syst Bacteriol 48, 107–116.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  9. Ezaki, T., Hashimoto, Y. & Yabuuchi, E. ( 1989; ). Fluorometric deoxyribonucleic acid-deoxyribonucleic acid hybridization in microdilution wells as an alternative to membrane filter hybridization in which radioisotopes are used to determine genetic relatedness among bacterial strains. Int J Syst Bacteriol 39, 224–229.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  10. Felsenstein, J. ( 1993; ). phylip (phylogeny inference package), version 3.5c. Department of Genome Sciences, University of Washington, Seattle, USA.
  11. Harrell, L. J., Andersen, G. L. & Wilson, K. H. ( 1995; ). Genetic variability of Bacillus anthracis and related species. J Clin Microbiol 33, 1847–1850.
    [Google Scholar]
  12. Heyndrickx, M., Vandemeulebroecke, K., Scheldeman, P., Kersters, K., De Vos, P., Logan, N. A., Aziz, A. M., Ali, N. & Berkeley, R. C. W. ( 1996; ). A polyphasic reassessment of the genus Paenibacillus, reclassification of Bacillus lautus (Nakamura 1984) as Paenibacillus lautus comb. nov. and of Bacillus peoriae (Montefusco et al. 1993) as Paenibacillus peoriae comb. nov., and emended descriptions of P. lautus and of P. peoriae. Int J Syst Bacteriol 46, 988–1003.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  13. Itaya, M. ( 1997; ). Physical map of the Bacillus subtilis 166 genome: evidence for the inversion of an approximately 1900 kb continuous DNA segment, the translocation of an approximately 100 kb segment and the duplication of a 5 kb segment. Microbiology 143, 3723–3732.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  14. Kunst, F., Ogasawara, N., Moszer, I. & 148 other authors ( 1997; ). The complete genome sequence of the Gram-positive bacterium Bacillus subtilis. Nature 390, 249–256.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  15. La Duc, M. T., Satomi, M., Agata, N. & Venkateswaran, K. ( 2004; ). gyrB as a phylogenetic discriminator for members of the Bacillus anthracis-cereus-thuringiensis group. J Microbiol Methods 56, 383–394.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  16. Lechner, S., Mayr, R., Francis, K. P., Prüß, B. M., Kaplan, T., Wießner-Gunkel, E., Stewart, G. S. A. B. & Scherer, S. ( 1998; ). Bacillus weihenstephanensis sp. nov. is a new psychrotolerant species of the Bacillus cereus group. Int J Syst Bacteriol 48, 1373–1382.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  17. Logan, N. A. & Berkeley, R. C. ( 1984; ). Identification of Bacillus strains using the API system. J Gen Microbiol 130, 1871–1882.
    [Google Scholar]
  18. Miller, L. & Berger, T. ( 1985; ). Bacteria identification by gas chromatography of whole cell fatty acids, Gas Chromatography Application Note 228–41. Palo Alto, CA: Hewlett-Packard Co.
  19. Nakamura, L. K. ( 1987; ). Deoxyribonucleic acid relatedness of lactose-positive Bacillus subtilis strains and Bacillus amyloliquefaciens. Int J Syst Bacteriol 37, 444–445.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  20. Nakamura, L. K. ( 1989; ). Taxonomic relationship of black-pigmented Bacillus subtilis strains and a proposal for Bacillus atrophaeus sp. nov. Int J Syst Bacteriol 39, 295–300.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  21. Nakamura, L. K., Roberts, M. S. & Cohan, F. M. ( 1999; ). Relationship of Bacillus subtilis clades associated with strains 168 and W23: a proposal for Bacillus subtilis subsp. subtilis subsp. nov. and Bacillus subtilis subsp. spizizenii subsp. nov. Int J Syst Bacteriol 49, 1211–1215.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  22. Palmisano, M. M., Nakamura, L. K., Duncan, K. E., Istock, C. A. & Cohan, F. M. ( 2001; ). Bacillus sonorensis sp. nov., a close relative of Bacillus licheniformis, isolated from soil in the Sonoran Desert, Arizona. Int J Syst Evol Microbiol 51, 1671–1679.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  23. Pettersson, B., Rippere, K. E., Yousten, A. A. & Priest, F. G. ( 1999; ). Transfer of Bacillus lentimorbus and Bacillus popilliae to the genus Paenibacillus with emended descriptions of Paenibacillus lentimorbus comb. nov. and Paenibacillus popilliae comb. nov. Int J Syst Bacteriol 49, 531–540.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  24. Poyart, C., Quesne, G., Coulon, S., Berche, P. & Trieu-Cuot, P. ( 1998; ). Identification of streptococci to species level by sequencing the gene encoding the manganese-dependent superoxide dismutase. J Clin Microbiol 36, 41–47.
    [Google Scholar]
  25. Poyart, C., Quesnes, G. & Trieu-Cuot, P. ( 2000; ). Sequencing the gene encoding manganese-dependent superoxide dismutase for rapid species identification of enterococci. J Clin Microbiol 38, 415–418.
    [Google Scholar]
  26. Poyart, C., Quesne, G., Boumaila, C. & Trieu-Cuot, P. ( 2001; ). Rapid and accurate species-level identification of coagulase-negative staphylococci by using the sodA gene as a target. J Clin Microbiol 39, 4296–4301.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  27. Ramos de la Vega, J. & López Mestas Camberos, M. L. ( 1996; ). Datos preliminares sobre el descubrimiento de una tumba de tiro en el sitio de Huitzilapa, Jalisco. Ancient Mesoamerica 7, 121–134 (in Spanish).[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  28. Roberts, M. S. & Cohan, F. M. ( 1995; ). Recombination and migration rates in natural populations of Bacillus subtilis and Bacillus mojavensis. Evolution 49, 1081–1094.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  29. Roberts, M. S., Nakamura, L. K. & Cohan, F. M. ( 1994; ). Bacillus mojavensis sp. nov., distinguishable from Bacillus subtilis by sexual isolation, divergence in DNA sequence, and differences in fatty acid composition. Int J Syst Bacteriol 44, 256–264.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  30. Roberts, M. S., Nakamura, L. K. & Cohan, F. M. ( 1996; ). Bacillus vallismortis sp. nov., a close relative of Bacillus subtilis, isolated from soil in Death Valley, California. Int J Syst Bacteriol 46, 470–475.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  31. Rössler, D., Ludwig, W., Schleifer, K. H., Lin, C., McGill, T. J., Wisotzkey, J. D., Jurtshuk, P., Jr & Fox, G. E. ( 1991; ). Phylogenetic diversity in the genus Bacillus as seen by 16S rRNA sequencing studies. Syst Appl Microbiol 14, 266–269.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  32. Ruiz-García, C., Béjar, V., Martínez-Checa, F., Llamas, I. & Quesada, E. ( 2005a; ). Bacillus velezensis sp. nov., a surfactant-producing bacterium isolated from the river Vélez in Málaga, southern Spain. Int J Syst Evol Microbiol 55, 191–195.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  33. Ruiz-García, C., Quesada, E., Martínez-Checa, F., Llamas, I., Urdaci, M. C. & Béjar, V. ( 2005b; ). Bacillus axarquiensis sp. nov. and Bacillus malacitensis sp. nov., isolated from river-mouth sediments in southern Spain. Int J Syst Evol Microbiol 55, 1279–1285.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  34. Satomi, M., Kimura, B., Mizoi, M., Sato, T. & Fujii, T. ( 1997; ). Tetragenococcus muriaticus sp. nov., a new moderately halophilic lactic acid bacterium isolated from fermented squid liver sauce. Int J Syst Bacteriol 47, 832–836.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  35. Schaeffer, P., Millet, J. & Aubert, J.-P. ( 1965; ). Catabolic repression of bacterial sporulation. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 54, 704–711.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  36. Smeltzer, M. S., Gill, S. R. & Iandolo, J. J. ( 1992; ). Localization of a chromosomal mutation affecting expression of extracellular lipase in Staphylococcus aureus. J Bacteriol 174, 4000–4006.
    [Google Scholar]
  37. Wayne, L. G., Brenner, D. J., Colwell, R. R. & 9 other authors ( 1987; ). Report of the ad hoc committee on reconciliation of approaches to bacterial systematics. Int J Syst Bacteriol 37, 463–464.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
http://instance.metastore.ingenta.com/content/journal/ijsem/10.1099/ijs.0.63946-0
Loading
/content/journal/ijsem/10.1099/ijs.0.63946-0
Loading

Data & Media loading...

Supplements

vol. , part 7, pp. 1475 - 1484

Comparison of phenotypic characteristics of strain 10b and other related species. [PDF](39 KB)



PDF

Most cited articles

This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Approval was a Success
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error