1887

Abstract

Earthworms emit nitrous oxide (NO) via the activity of bacteria in their gut. Four NO-producing facultative aerobes, ED1, ED5, MH21 and MH72, were isolated from the gut of the earthworm . The isolates produced NO under conditions that simulated the microenvironment of the earthworm gut. ED1 and ED5 were Gram-negative, motile rods that carried out complete denitrification (i.e. the reduction of nitrate to N) and contained membranous -type cytochromes. ED1 grew optimally at 30 °C and pH 7. ED1 oxidized organic acids and reduced (per)chlorate, sulfate, nitrate and nitrite. The closest phylogenetic relative of ED1 was . ED5 grew optimally at 25 °C and pH 7. ED5 grew mainly on sugars, and nitrate and nitrite were used as alternative electron acceptors. The closest phylogenetic relatives of ED5 were and . MH21 and MH72 were motile, spore-forming, rod-shaped bacteria with a three-layered cell wall. Sugars supported the growth of MH21 and MH72. Cells of MH21 grew in chains, were linked by connecting filaments and contained membranous -type cytochromes. MH21 grew optimally at 30–35 °C and pH 7·7, grew by fermentation and reduced low amounts of nitrite to NO. The closest phylogenetic relatives of MH21 were and . Based on morphological, physiological and phylogenetic characteristics, ED1 (=DSM 15892=ATCC BAA-841), ED5 (=DSM 15936=ATCC BAA-842) and MH21 (=DSM 15890=ATCC BAA-844) are proposed as type strains of the novel species sp. nov., sp. nov. and sp. nov., respectively. MH72 is considered a new strain of .

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2005-05-01
2020-09-24
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