1887

Abstract

The morphology and morphogenesis of an oxytrichid ciliate, (Blatterer & Foissner, 1990) Berger, 1999, collected from brackish and marine waters in China, were investigated using live observation and the protargol staining method. The main features of the morphogenetic process are: (i) the parental adoral zone of membranelles is retained completely in the proter and the anlage of undulating membranes originates from dedifferentiation of the old structures; (ii) three frontal, four frontoventral, one buccal, five ventral and five transverse cirri are derived from the anlagen of the undulating membranes and the five streaks of frontal-ventral-transverse anlagen in the pattern of 1 : 3 : 3 : 3 : 4 : 4 from left to right; (iii) the morphogenesis of the dorsal kineties is simpler than the pattern, i.e. without fragmentation of the dorsal kinety 3 anlagen; (iv) the single caudal cirrus originates from the dorsal kinety 3 anlage on the right side; (v) the two macronuclear nodules fuse into a single mass during the mid-stage of morphogenesis. These features correspond well with , indicating that the morphogenetic pattern of is stable. Phylogenetic analysis based on small-subunit rRNA gene sequence data supports the monophyly of the genus , which is nested within the non-Stylonychinae clade.

Funding
This study was supported by the:
  • Natural Science Foundation of China (Award 31172060, 2014M550378 and 31071898)
  • China Postdoctoral Science Foundation
  • Postdoctoral Initiative Foundation from Qingdao (Award Y4KY01103N)
Loading

Article metrics loading...

/content/journal/ijsem/10.1099/ijs.0.067801-0
2015-01-01
2021-10-16
Loading full text...

Full text loading...

/deliver/fulltext/ijsem/65/1/309.html?itemId=/content/journal/ijsem/10.1099/ijs.0.067801-0&mimeType=html&fmt=ahah

References

  1. Berger H. ( 1999 ). Monograph of the Oxytrichidae (Ciliophora, Hypotrichia) ( Monographiae Biologicae , vol. 78). Dordrecht:: Springer;. [View Article]
    [Google Scholar]
  2. Berger H. ( 2006 ). Monograph of the Urostyloidea (Ciliophora, Hypotricha) ( Monographiae Biologicae , vol. 85). Dordrecht:: Springer;.
    [Google Scholar]
  3. Berger H. ( 2008 ). Monograph of the Amphisiellidae and Trachelostylidae (Ciliophora, Hypotricha) ( Monographiae Biologicae , vol. 88). Dordrecht:: Springer;.
    [Google Scholar]
  4. Berger H. ( 2011 ). Monograph of the Gonostomatidae and Kahliellidae (Ciliophora, Hypotricha) ( Monographiae Biologicae , vol. 90). Dordrecht:: Springer;. [View Article]
    [Google Scholar]
  5. Berger H., Foissner W. ( 1997 ). Cladistic relationships and generic characterization of oxytrichid hypotrichs (Protozoa, Ciliophora). . Arch Protistenkd 148, 125155. [View Article]
    [Google Scholar]
  6. Bernhard D., Stechmann A., Foissner W., Ammermann D., Hehn M., Schlegel M. ( 2001 ). Phylogenetic relationships within the class Spirotrichea (Ciliophora) inferred from small subunit rRNA gene sequences. . Mol Phylogenet Evol 21, 8692. [View Article] [PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  7. Blatterer H., Foissner W. ( 1990 ). Beiträge zur ciliatenfauna (Protozoa: Ciliophora) der Amper (Bayern, Bundesrepublik Deutschland). . Arch Protistenkd 138, 93115 (in German). [View Article]
    [Google Scholar]
  8. Chen Z., Song W. ( 2002 ). Comparison of molecular biological techniques (RAPD, ARDRA and SSrRNA gene sequencing) on the phylogenetic relationships of lower taxa within spirotrichous ciliates. . High Technol Lett 8, 16.
    [Google Scholar]
  9. Chen X., Miao M., Ma H., Shao C., Al-Rasheid K. A. S. ( 2013a ). Morphology, morphogenesis and small-subunit rRNA gene sequence of the novel brackish-water ciliate Strongylidium orientale sp. nov. (Ciliophora, Hypotrichia). . Int J Syst Evol Microbiol 63, 11551164. [View Article] [PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  10. Chen X., Yan Y., Hu X., Zhu M., Ma H., Warren A. ( 2013b ). Morphology and morphogenesis of a soil ciliate, Rigidohymena candens (Kahl, 1932) Berger, 2011 (Ciliophora, Hypotricha, Oxytrichidae), with notes on its molecular phylogeny based on small-subunit rDNA sequence data. . Int J Syst Evol Microbiol 63, 19121921. [View Article] [PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  11. Chen X., Hu X., Lin X., Al-Rasheid K. A. S., Ma H., Miao M. ( 2013c ). Morphology, ontogeny and molecular phylogeny of a newbrackish water ciliate Bakuella subtropica sp. n. (Ciliophora, Hypotricha) from southern China. . Eur J Protistol 49, 611622. [View Article] [PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  12. Elwood H. J., Olsen G. J., Sogin M. L. ( 1985 ). The small-subunit ribosomal RNA gene sequences from the hypotrichous ciliates Oxytricha nova and Stylonychia pustulata . . Mol Biol Evol 2, 399410.[PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  13. Fan Y. B., Chen X. M., Hu X., Shao C., Al-Rasheid K. A. S., Al-Farraj S. A., Lin X. ( 2014 ). Morphology and morphogenesis of Apoholosticha sinica n. g., n. sp. (Ciliophora, Hypotrichia), with consideration of its systematic position among urostylids. . Eur J Protistol 50, 7888. [View Article] [PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  14. Foissner W. ( 1996 ). Ontogenesis in ciliated protozoa, with emphasis on stomatogenesis. . In Ciliates, Cells as Organisms, pp. 95177. Edited by Hausmann K., Bradbury P. C. . Stuttgart:: Gustav Fischer;.
    [Google Scholar]
  15. Foissner W., Moon-van der Staay S. Y., van der Staay G. W. M., Hackstein J. H. P., Krautgartner W.-D., Berger H. ( 2004 ). Reconciling classical and molecular phylogenies in the stichotrichines (Ciliophora, Spirotrichea), including new sequences from some rare species. . Eur J Protistol 40, 265281. [View Article]
    [Google Scholar]
  16. Gao F., Katz L. A. ( 2014 ). Phylogenomic analyses support the bifurcation of ciliates into two major clades that differ in properties of nuclear division. . Mol Phylogenet Evol 70, 240243. [View Article] [PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  17. Gao F., Katz L. A., Song W. ( 2013 ). Multigene-based analyses on evolutionary phylogeny of two controversial ciliate orders: Pleuronematida and Loxocephalida (Protista, Ciliophora, Oligohymenophorea). . Mol Phylogenet Evol 68, 5563. [View Article] [PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  18. Hall T. A. ( 1999 ). BioEdit: a user-friendly biological sequence alignment editor and analysis program for Windows 95/98/NT. . Nucleic Acids Symp Ser 41, 9598.
    [Google Scholar]
  19. Huang J., Chen Z., Song W., Berger H. ( 2014 ). Three-gene based phylogeny of the Urostyloidea (Protista, Ciliophora, Hypotricha), with notes on classification of some core taxa. . Mol Phylogenet Evol 70, 337347. [View Article] [PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  20. Jiang J., Huang J., Li L., Shao C., Al-Rasheid K. A., Al-Farraj S. A., Chen Z. ( 2013 ). Morphology, ontogeny, and molecular phylogeny of two novel bakuellid-like hypotrichs (Ciliophora: Hypotrichia), with establishment of two new genera. . Eur J Protistol 49, 7892. [View Article] [PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  21. Küppers G., Claps M. ( 2013 ). Hypotrichous ciliates (Protozoa: Ciliophora) from a temporary pond in Argentina, with redescription of Apoamphisiella hymenophora (Stokes, 1886) Berger, 1999. . Zootaxa 3626, 5576. [View Article]
    [Google Scholar]
  22. Küppers G. C., Paiva T. S., Borges B. N., Harada M. L., Garraza G.G., Mataloni G. ( 2011 ). An Antarctic hypotrichous ciliate, Parasterkiella thompsoni (Foissner) nov. gen., nov. comb., recorded in Argentinean peat-bogs: morphology, morphogenesis, and molecular phylogeny. . Eur J Protistol 47, 103123. [View Article] [PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  23. Medlin L., Elwood H. J., Stickel S., Sogin M. L. ( 1988 ). The characterization of enzymatically amplified eukaryotic 16S-like rRNA-coding regions. . Gene 71, 491499. [View Article] [PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  24. Miller M. A., Pfeiffer W., Schwartz T. ( 2010 ). Creating the CIPRES Science Gateway for inference of large phylogenetic trees. . In Proceedings of the Gateway Computing Environment Workshop (GCE), pp. 18, 14 November 2010, New Orleans;, LA, USA:. [CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  25. Naqvi I., Gupta R., Borgohain P., Sapra G. R. ( 2006 ). Morphology and morphogenesis of Rubrioxytricha indica n. sp. (Ciliophora: Hypotrichida). . Acta Protozool 45, 5364.
    [Google Scholar]
  26. Nylander, J. A. A. (2004). MrModeltest version 2. Distributed by the author. Evolutionary Biology Centre, Uppsala University, Sweden.
  27. Page R. D. M. ( 1996 ). TreeView: an application to display phylogenetic trees on personal computers. . Comput Appl Biosci 12, 357358.[PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  28. Pan Y., Li J. M., Li L., Hu X., Al-Rasheid K. A. S., Warren A. ( 2013 ). Ontogeny and molecular phylogeny of a new marine ciliate genus, Heterokeronopsis g. n. (Protozoa, Ciliophora, Hypotricha), with description of a new species. . Eur J Protistol 49, 298311. [View Article] [PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  29. Park K. M., Jung J. H., Min G. S. ( 2013 ). Morphology, morphogenesis, and molecular phylogeny of Anteholosticha multicirrata n. sp. (Ciliophora, Spirotrichea) with a note on morphogenesis of A. pulchra (Kahl, 1932) Berger, 2003. . J Eukaryot Microbiol 60, 564577. [View Article] [PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  30. Ronquist F., Huelsenbeck J. P. ( 2003 ). MrBayes 3: Bayesian phylogenetic inference under mixed models. . Bioinformatics 19, 15721574. [View Article] [PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  31. Schmidt S. L., Bernhard D., Schlegel M., Foissner W. ( 2007 ). Phylogeny of the Stichotrichia (Ciliophora; Spirotrichea) reconstructed with nuclear small subunit rRNA gene sequences: discrepancies and accordances with morphological data. . J Eukaryot Microbiol 54, 201209. [View Article] [PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  32. Shao C., Song W., Al-Rasheid K. A. S., Berger H. ( 2011 ). Redefinition and reassignment of the 18-cirri genera Hemigastrostyla, Oxytricha, Urosomoida, and Actinotricha (Ciliophora, Hypotricha), and description of one new genus and two new species. . Acta Protozool 50, 263287.
    [Google Scholar]
  33. Shao C., Ding Y., Al-Rasheid K. A., Al-Farraj S. A., Warren A., Song W. ( 2013 ). Establishment of a new hypotrichous genus, Heterotachysoma n. gen. and notes on the morphogenesis of Hemigastrostyla enigmatica (Ciliophora, Hypotrichia). . Eur J Protistol 49, 93105. [View Article] [PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  34. Shin M. K., Kim W. ( 1993 ). New records of three oxytrichid hypotrichs (Ciliophora: Hypotrichida: Oxytrichidae) from the Han river in Seoul, Korea. . Korean J Zool 36, 223230.
    [Google Scholar]
  35. Singh J., Kamra K. ( 2013 ). Paraurosomoida indiensis gen. nov., sp. nov., an oxytrichid (Ciliophora, Hypotricha) from Kyongnosla Alpine Sanctuary, including note on non-oxytrichid Dorsomarginalia. . Eur J Protistol 49, 600610. [View Article] [PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  36. Singh J., Kamra K., Sapra G. R. ( 2013 ). Morphology, ontogenesis, and molecular phylogeny of an Indian population of Cyrtohymena (Cyrtohymenides) shii, including remarks on the subgenus. . Eur J Protistol 49, 283297. [View Article] [PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  37. Song W., Warren A., Hu X. ( 2009 ). Free-living Ciliates in the Bohai and Yellow Seas. Beijing:: Science Press (in Chinese and English);.
    [Google Scholar]
  38. Song W., Wilbert N., Li L., Zhang Q. ( 2011 ). Re-evaluation on the diversity of the polyphyletic genus Metaurostylopsis (Ciliophora, Hypotricha): ontogenetic, morphologic, and molecular data suggest the establishment of a new genus Apourostylopsis n. g.. J Eukaryot Microbiol 58, 1121. [View Article] [PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  39. Tamura K., Dudley J., Nei M., Kumar S. ( 2007 ). mega4: molecular evolutionary genetics analysis (mega) software version 4.0. . Mol Biol Evol 24, 15961599. [View Article] [PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  40. Wilbert N. ( 1975 ). Eine verbesserte Technik der Protargolimprägnation für Ciliaten. . Mikrokosmos 64, 171179 (in German).
    [Google Scholar]
http://instance.metastore.ingenta.com/content/journal/ijsem/10.1099/ijs.0.067801-0
Loading
/content/journal/ijsem/10.1099/ijs.0.067801-0
Loading

Data & Media loading...

Most cited this month Most Cited RSS feed

This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Approval was a Success
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error