1887

Abstract

The morphology and infraciliature of two hypotrichous ciliates, n. sp. and Foissner and Adam, 1983, collected respectively from the surface of a sandy soil in the Huguang mangrove forest, Zhanjiang, China, and the surface of soil in a forest beside Ziwu Road, Xian, north-west China, were examined. n. sp. is characterized by an elongate body with slightly tapered anterior end, two macronuclear nodules and two micronuclei, paroral and endoral in -pattern, colourless cortical granules distributed in clusters or irregular short rows, adoral zone occupying 37 % of the body length, marginal rows almost confluent posteriorly, six dorsal kineties and three caudal cirri, caudal cirri and dorsal bristles almost indistinguishable when viewed . The well-known Foissner and Adam, 1983 was also redescribed and can be separated from the novel species by having cortical granules arranged along dorsal kineties and marginal rows on both sides (vs grouped in clusters as well as in short irregular rows), paroral and endoral in -pattern (vs in -pattern), macronuclear nodules obviously detached (vs adjacent) and a non-saline terrestrial habitat (vs saline terrestrial). The separation of these two taxa is also firmly supported by the molecular data, which show a significant difference between the two in their SSU rRNA gene sequences (similarity 97.1 %). Phylogenetic analyses based on SSU rRNA gene sequence data suggest a close relationship within the Oxytrichidae assemblage between n. sp. and .

Loading

Article metrics loading...

/content/journal/ijsem/10.1099/ijs.0.062281-0
2014-09-01
2019-11-21
Loading full text...

Full text loading...

/deliver/fulltext/ijsem/64/9/3016.html?itemId=/content/journal/ijsem/10.1099/ijs.0.062281-0&mimeType=html&fmt=ahah

References

  1. Berger H.. ( 1999;). Monograph of the Oxytrichidae (Ciliophora, Hypotrichia). . Monogr Biol 78:, 1–1080.
    [Google Scholar]
  2. Berger H.. ( 2006;). Monograph of the Urostyloidea (Ciliophora, Hypotricha). . Monogr Biol 85:, 1–1303.
    [Google Scholar]
  3. Berger H.. ( 2008;). Monograph of the Amphisiellidae and Trachelostylidae (Ciliophora, Hypotricha). . Monogr Biol 88:, 1–737.
    [Google Scholar]
  4. Berger H.. ( 2011;). Monograph of the Gonostomatidae and Kahliellidae (Ciliophora, Hypotricha). . Monogr Biol 90:, 1–741.
    [Google Scholar]
  5. Berger H., Foissner W.. ( 1997;). Cladistic relationships and generic characterization of oxytrichid hypotrichs (Protozoa, Ciliophora). . Arch Protistenkd 148:, 125–155. [CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  6. Calendini F., Martin J. F.. ( 2005;). PaupUp v1.0.3.1. A free graphical frontend for paup* DOS software. http://www.agro-montpellier.fr/sppe/Recherche/JFM/PaupUp/main.htm (accessed 12 July 2010).
    [Google Scholar]
  7. Chen L., Liu W., Liu A., Al-Rasheid K. A. S., Shao C.. ( 2013a;). Morphology and molecular phylogeny of a new marine hypotrichous ciliate, Hypotrichidium paraconicum n. sp. (Ciliophora, Hypotrichia). . J Eukaryot Microbiol 60:, 588–600. [CrossRef][PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  8. Chen X., Yan Y., Hu X., Zhu M., Ma H., Warren A.. ( 2013b;). Morphology and morphogenesis of a soil ciliate, Rigidohymena candens (Kahl, 1932) Berger, 2011 (Ciliophora, Hypotricha, Oxytrichidae), with notes on its molecular phylogeny based on small-subunit rDNA sequence data. . Int J Syst Evol Microbiol 63:, 1912–1921. [CrossRef][PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  9. Edgar R. C.. ( 2004;). muscle: multiple sequence alignment with high accuracy and high throughput. . Nucleic Acids Res 32:, 1792–1797. [CrossRef][PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  10. Foissner W.. ( 1987;). Soil protozoa: fundamental problems, ecological significance, adaptations in ciliates and testaceans, bioindicators, and guide to the literature. . In Progress in Protistology, vol. 2, pp. 69–212. Edited by Patterson D. J., Corliss J. O... Bristol:: Biopress;.
    [Google Scholar]
  11. Foissner W.. ( 1999;). Notes on the soil ciliate biota (Protozoa, Ciliophora) from the Shimba Hills in Kenya (Africa): diversity and description of three new genera and ten new species. . Biodivers Conserv 8:, 319–389. [CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  12. Foissner W.. ( 2012;). Schmidingerothrix extraordinaria nov. gen., nov. spec., a secondarily oligomerized hypotrich (Ciliophora, Hypotricha, Schmidingerotrichidae nov. fam.) from hypersaline soils of Africa. . Eur J Protistol 48:, 237–251. [CrossRef][PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  13. Foissner W., Adam H.. ( 1983;). Morphologie und Morphogenese des Bodenciliaten Oxytricha granulifera sp. n. (Ciliophora, Oxytrichidae). . Zool Scr 12:, 1–11 (in German). [CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  14. Foissner W., Al-Rasheid K.. ( 2006;). A unified organization of the stichotrichine oral apparatus, including a description of the buccal seal (Ciliophora: Spirotrichea). . Acta Protozool 45:, 1–16.
    [Google Scholar]
  15. Foissner W., Stoeck T.. ( 2011;). Cotterillia bromelicola nov. gen., nov. spec., a gonostomatid ciliate (Ciliophora, Hypotricha) from tank bromeliads (Bromeliaceae) with de novo originating dorsal kineties. . Eur J Protistol 47:, 29–50. [CrossRef][PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  16. Foissner W., Agatha S., Berger H.. ( 2002;). Part I. Text and line drawings. . In Soil Ciliates (Protozoa, Ciliophora) from Namibia (Southwest Africa), with Emphasis on Two Contrasting Environments, the Etosha Region and the Namib Desert (Denisia, vol. 5). Linz:: Oberösterreichisches Landesmuseum;.
    [Google Scholar]
  17. Foissner W., Quintela-Alonso P., Al-Rasheid K.. ( 2008;). Soil ciliates from Saudi Arabia, including descriptions of two new genera and six new species. . Acta Protozool 47:, 317–352.[PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  18. Gao F., Katz L. A., Song W.. ( 2013;). Multigene-based analyses on evolutionary phylogeny of two controversial ciliate orders: Pleuronematida and Loxocephalida (Protista, Ciliophora, Oligohymenophorea). . Mol Phylogenet Evol 68:, 55–63. [CrossRef][PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  19. Hall T. A.. ( 1999;). BioEdit: a user-friendly biological sequence alignment editor and analysis program for Windows 95/98/NT. . Nucleic Acids Symp Ser 41:, 95–98.
    [Google Scholar]
  20. Hu X., Hu X., Al-Rasheid K. A. S., Al-Farraj S. A., Song W.. ( 2011;). Insights into the phylogeny of sporadotrichid ciliates (Protozoa, Ciliophora: Hypotricha) based on genealogical analyses of multiple molecular markers. . Chin J Oceanol Limnol 29:, 96–102. [CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  21. Huang J., Dunthorn M., Song W.. ( 2012;). Expanding character sampling for the molecular phylogeny of euplotid ciliates (Protozoa, Ciliophora) using three markers, with a focus on the family Uronychiidae. . Mol Phylogenet Evol 63:, 598–605. [CrossRef][PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  22. Huang J., Chen Z., Song W., Berger H.. ( 2014;). Three-gene based phylogeny of the Urostyloidea (Protista, Ciliophora, Hypotricha), with notes on classification of some core taxa. . Mol Phylogenet Evol 70:, 337–347. [CrossRef][PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  23. Küppers G. C., Paiva T. S., Borges B. N., Harada M. L., Garraza G. G., Mataloni G.. ( 2011;). An Antarctic hypotrichous ciliate, Parasterkiella thompsoni (Foissner) nov. gen., nov. comb., recorded in Argentinean peat-bogs: morphology, morphogenesis, and molecular phylogeny. . Eur J Protistol 47:, 103–123. [CrossRef][PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  24. Li J. M., Liu W., Gao S., Warren A., Song W.. ( 2013;). Multigene-based analyses of the phylogenetic evolution of oligotrich ciliates, with consideration of the internal transcribed spacer 2 secondary structure of three systematically ambiguous genera. . Eukaryot Cell 12:, 430–437. [CrossRef][PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  25. Lv Z., Chen L., Chen L., Shao C., Miao M., Warren A.. ( 2013;). Morphogenesis and molecular phylogeny of a new freshwater ciliate, Notohymena apoaustralis n. sp. (Ciliophora, Oxytrichidae). . J Eukaryot Microbiol 60:, 455–466. [CrossRef][PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  26. Medlin L., Elwood H. J., Stickel S., Sogin M. L.. ( 1988;). The characterization of enzymatically amplified eukaryotic 16S-like rRNA-coding regions. . Gene 71:, 491–499. [CrossRef][PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  27. Nylander J. A. A.. ( 2004;). MrModeltest, version 2.2. Uppsala:: Evolutionary Biology Centre, Uppsala University;.
    [Google Scholar]
  28. Paiva T. S., Borges B. N., da Silva-Neto I. D., Harada M. L.. ( 2012;). Morphology and 18S rDNA phylogeny of Hemicycliostyla sphagni (Ciliophora, Hypotricha) from Brazil with redefinition of the genus Hemicycliostyla. . Int J Syst Evol Microbiol 62:, 229–241. [CrossRef][PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  29. Pan Y., Li J., Li L., Hu X., Al-Rasheid K. A. S., Warren A.. ( 2013;). Ontogeny and molecular phylogeny of a new marine ciliate genus, Heterokeronopsis g. n. (Protozoa, Ciliophora, Hypotricha), with description of a new species. . Eur J Protistol 49:, 298–311. [CrossRef][PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  30. Ronquist F., Huelsenbeck J. P.. ( 2003;). MrBayes 3: Bayesian phylogenetic inference under mixed models. . Bioinformatics 19:, 1572–1574. [CrossRef][PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  31. Shao C., Song W., Al-Rasheid K. A. S., Berger H.. ( 2011;). Redefinition and reassignment of the 18-cirri genera Hemigastrostyla, Oxytricha, Urosomoida, and Actinotricha (Ciliophora, Hypotricha), and description of one new genus and two new species. . Acta Protozool 50:, 263–287.
    [Google Scholar]
  32. Shao C., Ding Y., Al-Rasheid K. A., Al-Farraj S. A., Warren A., Song W.. ( 2013a;). Establishment of a new hypotrichous genus, Heterotachysoma n. gen. and notes on the morphogenesis of Hemigastrostyla enigmatica (Ciliophora, Hypotrichia). . Eur J Protistol 49:, 93–105. [CrossRef][PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  33. Shao C., Pan X., Jiang J., Ma H., Al-Rasheid K. A. S., Warren A., Lin X.. ( 2013b;). A redescription of the oxytrichid Tetmemena pustulata (Müller, 1786) Eigner, 1999 and notes on morphogenesis in the marine urostylid Metaurostylopsis salina Lei et al., 2005 (Ciliophora, Hypotrichia). . Eur J Protistol 49:, 272–282. [CrossRef][PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  34. Shi X., Warren A., Song W.. ( 2002;). Studies on the morphology and morphogenesis of Allotricha curdsi nov. spec. (Ciliophora, Hypotrichida). . Acta Protozool 41:, 397–405.
    [Google Scholar]
  35. Shimodaira H.. ( 2002;). An approximately unbiased test of phylogenetic tree selection. . Syst Biol 51:, 492–508. [CrossRef][PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  36. Shimodaira H., Hasegawa M.. ( 2001;). consel: for assessing the confidence of phylogenetic tree selection. . Bioinformatics 17:, 1246–1247. [CrossRef][PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  37. Singh J., Kamra K.. ( 2013;). Paraurosomoida indiensis gen. nov., sp. nov., an oxytrichid (Ciliophora, Hypotricha) from Kyongnosla Alpine Sanctuary, including note on non-oxytrichid Dorsomarginalia. . Eur J Protistol 49:, 600–610. [CrossRef][PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  38. Singh J., Kamra K., Sapra G. R.. ( 2013;). Morphology, ontogenesis, and molecular phylogeny of an Indian population of Cyrtohymena (Cyrtohymenides) shii, including remarks on the subgenus. . Eur J Protistol 49:, 283–297. [CrossRef][PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  39. Song W.. ( 1990;). A comparative analysis of the morphology and morphogenesis of Gonostomum strenua (Engelmann, 1862) (Ciliophora, Hypotrichida) and related species. . J Protozool 37:, 249–257. [CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  40. Song W.. ( 2001;). Morphology and morphogenesis of the marine ciliate Ponturostyla enigmatica (Dragesco & Dragesco-Kernéis, 1986) Jankowski, 1989 (Ciliophora, Hypotrichida, Oxytrichidae). . Eur J Protistol 37:, 181–197. [CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  41. Song W., Warren A.. ( 1999;). Observations on morphogenesis in a marine ciliate Tachysoma ovata (Protozoa: Ciliophora: Hypotrichida). . J Mar Biol Assoc U K 79:, 35–38. [CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  42. Song W., Wilbert N.. ( 1997a;). Morphological investigations on some free living ciliates (Protozoa, Ciliophora) from China seas with description of a new hypotrichous genus, Hemigastrostyla nov. gen.. Arch Protistenkd 148:, 413–444. [CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  43. Song W., Wilbert N.. ( 1997b;). Morphological studies on some free living ciliates (Ciliophora: Heterotrichida, Hypotrichida) from marine biotopes in Qingdao, China, with descriptions of three new species: Holosticha warreni nov. spec., Tachysoma ovata nov. spec. and T. dragescoi nov. spec.. Eur J Protistol 33:, 48–62. [CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  44. Song W., Wilbert N.. ( 2002;). Faunistic studies on marine ciliates from the Antarctic benthic area, including descriptions of one epizoic from, 6 new species and 2 new genera (Protozoa: Ciliophora). . Acta Protozool 41:, 23–61.
    [Google Scholar]
  45. Stamatakis A., Hoover P., Rougemont J.. ( 2008;). A rapid bootstrap algorithm for the RAxML Web servers. . Syst Biol 57:, 758–771. [CrossRef][PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  46. Tamura K., Dudley J., Nei M., Kumar S.. ( 2007;). mega4: molecular evolutionary genetics analysis (mega) software version 4.0. . Mol Biol Evol 24:, 1596–1599. [CrossRef][PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  47. Wallengren H. D. J.. ( 1900;). Zur Kenntnis der vergleichenden Morphologie der hypotrichen Infusorien (Handlinga K. Svenska Vetenskaps-Akademiens, Bihang, vol. 26 issue 2). Stockholm:: P. A. Norstedt & Söner (in German);.
    [Google Scholar]
  48. Weisse T., Moser M., Scheffel U., Stadler P., Berendonk T., Weithoff G., Berger H.. ( 2013;). Systematics and species-specific response to pH of Oxytricha acidotolerans sp. nov. and Urosomoida sp. (Ciliophora, Hypotricha) from acid mining lakes. . Eur J Protistol 49:, 255–271. [CrossRef][PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  49. Wilbert N.. ( 1975;). Eine verbesserte Technik der Protargolimprägnation für Ciliaten. . Mikrokosmos 64:, 171–179 (in German).
    [Google Scholar]
  50. Yi Z., Katz L. A., Song W.. ( 2012;). Assessing whether alpha-tubulin sequences are suitable for phylogenetic reconstruction of Ciliophora with insights into its evolution in euplotids. . PLoS ONE 7:, e40635. [CrossRef][PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
http://instance.metastore.ingenta.com/content/journal/ijsem/10.1099/ijs.0.062281-0
Loading
/content/journal/ijsem/10.1099/ijs.0.062281-0
Loading

Data & Media loading...

Most Cited This Month

This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Approval was a Success
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error