1887

Abstract

Two helical-shaped bacteria (strains JC133 and JC143), which stain Gram-negative, were isolated from an alkaline soda lake, Lonar, India. Both strains were obligate anaerobes, mesophilic and required halo-alkaline conditions for growth. Both strains were resistant to rifampicin and kanamycin, but sensitive to gentamicin, tetracycline, ampicillin and chloramphenicol. Both strains had phosphatidylglycerol (PG), diphosphotidylglycerol (DPG), glycolipid (GL) and four unidentified lipids (L1–4) as the major polar lipids. Cω7 was the predominant cellular fatty acid with significant proportions of C, Cω9, C, C, Cω5, Cω5 and Cω9. The DNA G+C contents of strain JC131 and JC143 were 58.2 and 58.5 mol%, respectively, and the two strains showed DNA reassociation >85 % (based on DNA–DNA hybridization). Based on the 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis, both strains were identified as belonging to the genus with Z-7491 (99.6 % sequence similarity), ASpG1 (99 %) and other members of the genus (<93 %) as their closest phylogenetic neighbours. However, strain JC133 and JC143 displayed less than 53.5 % binding (based on DNA–DNA hybridization) with Z-7491 and ASpG1. On the basis of physiological, biochemical, chemotaxonomic and molecular properties, strains JC133 and JC143 can be differentiated from other members of the genus and represent a novel species of the genus , for which the name sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is JC133 ( = KCTC 15220 = NBRC 109056).

Loading

Article metrics loading...

/content/journal/ijsem/10.1099/ijs.0.046292-0
2013-06-01
2019-12-13
Loading full text...

Full text loading...

/deliver/fulltext/ijsem/63/6/2223.html?itemId=/content/journal/ijsem/10.1099/ijs.0.046292-0&mimeType=html&fmt=ahah

References

  1. Altschul S. F. , Gish W. , Miller W. , Myers E. W. , Lipman D. J. . ( 1990; ). Basic local alignment search tool. . J Mol Biol 215:, 403–410.[PubMed] [CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  2. Breznak J. A. , Canale-Parola E. . ( 1975; ). Morphology and physiology of Spirochaeta aurantia strains isolated from aquatic habitats. . Arch Microbiol 105:, 1–12. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  3. Breznak J. A. , Warnecke F. . ( 2008; ). Spirochaeta cellobiosiphila sp. nov., a facultatively anaerobic, marine spirochaete. . Int J Syst Evol Microbiol 58:, 2762–2768. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  4. Canale-Parola E. . ( 1980; ). Revival of the names Spirochaeta litoralis, Spirochaeta zuelzerae, and Spirochaeta aurantia . . Int J Syst Bacteriol 30:, 594. [CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  5. Canale-Parola E. . ( 1992; ). Free-living saccharolytic spirochetes: the genus Spirochaeta . . In The Prokaryotes, , 2nd edn., pp. 3524–3536. Edited by Balows A. , Truper H. G. , Dworkin M. , Harder W. , Schleifer K.-H. . . New York:: Springer-Verlag;.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  6. De Ley J. , Cattoir H. , Reynaerts A. . ( 1970; ). The quantitative measurement of DNA hybridization from renaturation rates. . Eur J Biochem 12:, 133–142. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  7. Dröge S. , Fröhlich J. , Radek R. , König H. . ( 2006; ). Spirochaeta coccoides sp. nov., a novel coccoid spirochete from the hindgut of the termite Neotermes castaneus . . Appl Environ Microbiol 72:, 392–397. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  8. Dubinina G. , Grabovich M. , Leshcheva N. , Rainey F. A. , Gavrish E. . ( 2011; ). Spirochaeta perfilievii sp. nov., an oxygen-tolerant, sulfide-oxidizing, sulfur- and thiosulfate-reducing spirochaete isolated from a saline spring. . Int J Syst Evol Microbiol 61:, 110–117. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  9. Gerhardt P. , Murray R. G. E. , Costilow R. N. , Nester E. W. , Wood W. A. , Krieg N. R. , Phillips G. B. . (editors) ( 1981; ). Manual of Methods for General Bacteriology. Washington, DC:: American Society for Microbiology;.
    [Google Scholar]
  10. Gillis M. , De Ley J. , De Cleene M. . ( 1970; ). The determination of molecular weight of bacterial genome DNA from renaturation rates. . Eur J Biochem 12:, 143–153. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  11. Greenberg E. P. , Canale-Parola E. . ( 1976; ). Spirochaeta halophila sp. n., a facultative anaerobe from a high-salinity pond. . Arch Microbiol 110:, 185–194. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  12. Harwood C. S. , Canale-Parola E. . ( 1983; ). Spirochaeta isovalerica sp. nov., a marine anaerobe that forms branched-chain fatty acids as fermentation products. . Int J Syst Bacteriol 33:, 573–579. [CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  13. Hespell R. B. , Canale-Parola E. . ( 1970; ). Spirochaeta litoralis sp. n., a strictly anaerobic marine spirochete. . Arch Mikrobiol 74:, 1–18. [CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  14. Hoover R. B. , Pikuta E. V. , Bej A. K. , Marsic D. , Whitman W. B. , Tang J. , Krader P. . ( 2003; ). Spirochaeta americana sp. nov., a new haloalkaliphilic, obligately anaerobic spirochaete isolated from soda Mono Lake in California. . Int J Syst Evol Microbiol 53:, 815–821. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  15. Kates M. . ( 1972; ). Techniques of Lipidology. New York:: Elsevier;.
    [Google Scholar]
  16. Kates M. . ( 1986; ). Techniques of Lipidology: Isolation, Analysis, and Identification of Lipids. Amsterdam:: Elsevier;.
    [Google Scholar]
  17. Kim O. S. , Cho Y. J. , Lee K. , Yoon S. H. , Kim M. , Na H. , Park S. C. , Jeon Y. S. , Lee J. H. et al. ( 2012; ). Introducing EzTaxon-e: a prokaryotic 16S rRNA gene sequence database with phylotypes that represent uncultured species. . Int J Syst Evol Microbiol 62:, 716–721. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  18. Kimura M. . ( 1980; ). A simple method for estimating evolutionary rates of base substitutions through comparative studies of nucleotide sequences. . J Mol Evol 16:, 111–120. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  19. Kleiner D. E. , Stetler-Stevenson W. G. . ( 1994; ). Quantitative zymography: detection of picogram quantities of gelatinases. . Anal Biochem 218:, 325–329. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  20. Magot M. , Fardeau M.-L. , Arnauld O. , Lanau C. , Ollivier B. , Thomas P. , Patel B. K. C. . ( 1997; ). Spirochaeta smaragdinae sp. nov., a new mesophilic strictly anaerobic spirochete from an oil field. . FEMS Microbiol Lett 155:, 185–191. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  21. Marmur J. . ( 1961; ). A procedure for the isolation of deoxyribonucleic acid from microorganisms. . J Mol Biol 3:, 208–218. [CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  22. Mesbah M. , Premachandran U. , Whitman W. B. . ( 1989; ). Precise measurement of the G+C content of deoxyribonucleic acid by high-performance liquid chromatography. . Int J Syst Bacteriol 39:, 159–167. [CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  23. Oren A. , Duker S. , Ritter S. . ( 1996; ). The polar lipid composition 280 of Walsby’s square bacterium. . FEMS Microbiol Lett 138:, 135–140. [CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  24. Paster B. J. . ( 2010; ). Phylum XV. Spirochaetes Garrity and Holt 2001. . In Bergey's Manual of Systematic Bacteriology, , 2nd edn., vol. 4, pp. 471–566. Edited by Krieg N. R. , Staley J. T. , Brown D. R. , Hedlund B. P. , Paster B. J. , Ward N. L. . . W.:: Ludwig and W. B. Whitman;. [CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  25. Pikuta E. V. , Hoover R. B. , Bej A. K. , Marsic D. , Whitman W. B. , Krader P. . ( 2009; ). Spirochaeta dissipatitropha sp. nov., an alkaliphilic, obligately anaerobic bacterium, and emended description of the genus Spirochaeta Ehrenberg 1835. . Int J Syst Evol Microbiol 59:, 1798–1804.[PubMed] [CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  26. Rohmer M. , Bouvier-Nave P. , Ourisson G. . ( 1984; ). Distribution of hopanoid triterpenes in prokaryotes. . J Gen Microbiol 130:, 1137–1150.
    [Google Scholar]
  27. Sasikala K. , Ramana Ch. V. , Raghuveer Rao P. , Subrahmanyam M. . ( 1990; ). Photoproduction of hydrogen, nitrogenase and hydrogenase activities of free and immobilized whole cells of Rhodobacter sphaeroides OU001. . FEMS Microbiol Lett 72:, 23–28. [CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  28. Sasser, M. (1990). Identification of bacteria by gas chromatography of cellular fatty acids, MIDI Technical Note 101. Newark, DE: MIDI Inc.
  29. Stackebrandt E. , Ebers J. . ( 2006; ). Taxonomic parameters revisited: tarnished gold standards. . Microbiol Today 33:, 152–155.
    [Google Scholar]
  30. Stackebrandt E. , Goebel B. M. . ( 1994; ). A place for DNA–DNA reassociation and 16S rRNA sequence analysis in the present species definition in bacteriology. . Int J Syst Bacteriol 44:, 846–849. [CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  31. Sutter V. L. , Carter W. T. . ( 1972; ). Evaluation of media and reagents for indole-spot tests in anaerobic bacteriology. . Am J Clin Pathol 58:, 335–338.[PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  32. Tamura K. , Peterson D. , Peterson N. , Stecher G. , Nei M. , Kumar S. . ( 2011; ). mega5: molecular evolutionary genetics analysis using maximum likelihood, evolutionary distance, and maximum parsimony methods. . Mol Biol Evol 28:, 2731–2739. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  33. Teal T. H. , Chapman M. , Guillemette T. , Margulis L. . ( 1996; ). Free-living spirochetes from Cape Cod microbial mats detected by electron microscopy. . Microbiologia 12:, 571–584.[PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  34. Tindall B. J. . ( 1990a; ). Lipid composition of Halobacterium lacusfoprofundi . . FEMS Microbiol Lett 66:, 199–202. [CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  35. Tindall B. J. . ( 1990b; ). A comparative study of the lipid composition of Halobacterium saccharovorum from various sources. . Syst Appl Microbiol 13:, 128–130. [CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  36. Tindall B. J. , Rosselló-Móra R. , Busse H.-J. , Ludwig W. , Kämpfer P. . ( 2010; ). Notes on the characterization of prokaryote strains for taxonomic purposes. . Int J Syst Evol Microbiol 60:, 249–266. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  37. Tourova T. P. , Antonov A. S. . ( 1987; ). Identification of microorganisms by rapid DNA–DNA hybridization. . Meth Microbiol 19:, 333–355. [CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  38. Venkata Ramana V. , Chakravarthy S. K. , Raj P. S. , Kumar B. V. , Shobha E. , Ramaprasad E. V. , Sasikala Ch. , Ramana Ch. V. . ( 2012; ). Descriptions of Rhodopseudomonas parapalustris sp. nov., Rhodopseudomonas harwoodiae sp. nov., and Rhodopseudomonas pseudopalustris sp. nov., and emended description of Rhodopseudomonas palustris . . Int J Syst Evol Microbiol 62:, 1790–1798. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  39. Wolin E. A. , Wolin M. J. , Wolfe R. S. . ( 1963; ). Formation of methane by bacterial extracts. . J Biol Chem 238:, 2882–2886.[PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  40. Zhilina T. N. , Zavarzin G. A. . ( 1994; ). Alkaliphilic anaerobic community at pH 10. . Curr Microbiol 29:, 109–112. [CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  41. Zhilina T. N. , Zavarzin G. A. , Rainey F. , Kevbrin V. V. , Kostrikina N. A. , Lysenko A. M. . ( 1996; ). Spirochaeta alkalica sp. nov., Spirochaeta africana sp. nov., and Spirochaeta asiatica sp. nov., alkaliphilic anaerobes from the Continental Soda Lakes in Central Asia and the East African Rift. . Int J Syst Bacteriol 46:, 305–312. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
http://instance.metastore.ingenta.com/content/journal/ijsem/10.1099/ijs.0.046292-0
Loading
/content/journal/ijsem/10.1099/ijs.0.046292-0
Loading

Data & Media loading...

Supplements

Supplementary material 

PDF

Most Cited This Month

This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Approval was a Success
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error