1887

Abstract

A swarming and moderately halotolerant bacterium, designated strain A1-2, was isolated from the intestinal tract of the earthworm L. Cells were endospore-forming rods that were facultatively anaerobic, catalase-positive, oxidase-negative and motile by peritrichous flagella. The isolate grew optimally at 30 °C and pH 7.0, and could grow with up to 9 % (w/v) NaCl. Phylogenetic analysis of 16S rRNA gene sequences indicated that strain A1-2 belonged to the genus and exhibited 16S rRNA gene sequence similarities of 96.8, 96.0, 96.0, 96.4 and 96.7 % with LMG 21831, PT-45, BAC 1015, SMC 4352-1 and LMG 18435, respectively. DNA–DNA relatedness values between the isolate and the reference strains were ≤38.3 % The DNA G+C content of strain A1-2 was 38.5 mol%. The predominant menaquinone was MK-7 and the major polar lipids were diphosphatidylglycerol and phosphatidylethanolamine. The major cellular fatty acids were iso-C (51.5 %) and anteiso-C (29.6 %) and the cell-wall diamino acid was -diaminopimelic acid. On the basis of 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis and chemotaxonomic and phenotypic characteristics, it is concluded that strain A1-2 represents a novel species of the genus , for which we propose the name sp. nov. The type strain is A1-2 ( = KCCM 90092 = JCM 16993).

Loading

Article metrics loading...

/content/journal/ijsem/10.1099/ijs.0.034892-0
2012-09-01
2019-12-08
Loading full text...

Full text loading...

/deliver/fulltext/ijsem/62/9/2077.html?itemId=/content/journal/ijsem/10.1099/ijs.0.034892-0&mimeType=html&fmt=ahah

References

  1. Albert R. A. , Archambault J. , Rosselló-Mora R. , Tindall B. J. , Matheny M. . ( 2005; ). Bacillus acidicola sp. nov., a novel mesophilic, acidophilic species isolated from acidic Sphagnum peat bogs in Wisconsin. . Int J Syst Evol Microbiol 55:, 2125–2130. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  2. Ash C. , Farrow J. A. E. , Wallbanks S. , Collins M. D. . ( 1991; ). Phylogenetic heterogeneity of the genus Bacillus revealed by comparative analysis of small-subunit-ribosomal RNA sequences. . Lett Appl Microbiol 13:, 202–206. [CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  3. Bae S. S. , Lee J. H. , Kim S. J. . ( 2005; ). Bacillus alveayuensis sp. nov., a thermophilic bacterium isolated from deep-sea sediments of the Ayu Trough. . Int J Syst Evol Microbiol 55:, 1211–1215. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  4. Breznak J. A. , Costilow R. N. . ( 1994; ). Physicochemical factors in growth. . In Methods for General and Molecular Bacteriology, pp. 137–154. Edited by Gerhardt P. , Murray R. G. E. , Wood W. A. , Krieg N. R. . . Washington, DC:: American Society for Microbiology;.
    [Google Scholar]
  5. Cohn F. . ( 1872; ). Untersuchungen über Bakterien. . Beitrage zur Biologie der Pflanzen 1:, 127–224 (in German).
    [Google Scholar]
  6. Edwards C. A. , Fletcher K. E. . ( 1988; ). Interactions between earthworms and microorganisms in organic-matter breakdown. . Agric Ecosyst Environ 24:, 235–247. [CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  7. Fitch W. M. . ( 1971; ). Toward defining the course of evolution: minimum change for a specific tree topology. . Syst Zool 20:, 406–416. [CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  8. Heyrman J. , Vanparys B. , Logan N. A. , Balcaen A. , Rodríguez-Díaz M. , Felske A. , De Vos P. . ( 2004; ). Bacillus novalis sp. nov., Bacillus vireti sp. nov., Bacillus soli sp. nov., Bacillus bataviensis sp. nov. and Bacillus drentensis sp. nov., from the Drentse A grasslands. . Int J Syst Evol Microbiol 54:, 47–57. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  9. Hong Y. , Kim T. H. , Na Y. E. . ( 2001; ). Identity of two earthworms used in vermiculture and vermicomposting in Korea: Eisenia andrei and Perionyx excavatus . . Kor J Soil Zool 17:, 185–190.
    [Google Scholar]
  10. Hong S. W. , Lee J. S. , Chung K. S. . ( 2011; ). Effect of enzyme producing microorganisms on the biomass of epigeic earthworms (Eisenia fetida) in vermicompost. . Bioresour Technol 102:, 6344–6347. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  11. Kaiser D. . ( 2007; ). Bacterial swarming: a re-examination of cell-movement patterns. . Curr Biol 17:, R561–R570. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  12. Kim H.-J. , Shin K.-H. , Cha C.-J. , Hur H.-G. . ( 2004; ). Analysis of aerobic and culturable bacterial community structures in earthworm (Eisenia fetida) intestine. . Agric Chem Biotechnol 47:, 137–142.
    [Google Scholar]
  13. Ko K. S. , Oh W. S. , Lee M. Y. , Lee J. H. , Lee H. , Peck K. R. , Lee N. Y. , Song J.-H. . ( 2006; ). Bacillus infantis sp. nov. and Bacillus idriensis sp. nov., isolated from a patient with neonatal sepsis. . Int J Syst Evol Microbiol 56:, 2541–2544. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  14. Lane D. J. , Pace B. , Olsen G. J. , Stahl D. A. , Sogin M. L. , Pace N. R. . ( 1985; ). Rapid determination of 16S ribosomal RNA sequences for phylogenetic analyses. . Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 82:, 6955–6959. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  15. Logan N. A. , De Vos P. . ( 2009; ). Genus Bacillus Cohn 1872. . In Bergey’s Manual of Systematic Bacteriology, , 2nd edn., vol. 3, pp. 21–128. Edited by De Vos P. , Garrity G. M. , Jones D. , Krieg N. R. , Ludwig W. , Rainey F. R. , Schleifer K. H. , Whitman W. B. . . New York:: Springer;.
    [Google Scholar]
  16. Logan N. A. , Lebbe L. , Verhelst A. , Goris J. , Forsyth G. , Rodríguez-Díaz M. , Heyndrickx M. , De Vos P. . ( 2004; ). Bacillus shackletonii sp. nov., from volcanic soil on Candlemas Island, South Sandwich archipelago. . Int J Syst Evol Microbiol 54:, 373–376. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  17. Logan N. A. , Popovitch T. J. , Hoffmaster A. . ( 2007; ). Bacillus and related genera. . In Manual of Clinical Microbiology, , 9th edn., vol. 1, 445–460. Edited by Murray P. R. , Baron E. J. , Jorgensen J. H. , Pfaller M. A. , Yolken R. H. . . Washington, DC:: American Society for Microbiology;.
    [Google Scholar]
  18. Miller L. T. . ( 1982; ). Single derivatization method for routine analysis of bacterial whole-cell fatty acid methyl esters, including hydroxy acids. . J Clin Microbiol 16:, 584–586.[PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  19. Minnikin D. E. , O’Donnell A. G. , Goodfellow M. , Alderson G. , Athalye M. , Schaal A. , Parlett J. H. . ( 1984; ). An integrated procedure for the extraction of bacterial isoprenoid quinones and polar lipids. . J Microbiol Methods 2:, 233–241. [CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  20. Nagel M. , Andreesen J. R. . ( 1991; ). Bacillus niacini sp. nov., a nicotinate-metabolizing mesophile isolated from soil. . Int J Syst Bacteriol 41:, 134–139. [CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  21. Nakagawa Y. , Yamasato K. . ( 1993; ). Phylogenetic diversity of the genus Cytophaga revealed by 16S rRNA sequencing and menaquinone analysis. . J Gen Microbiol 139:, 1155–1161.[PubMed] [CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  22. Reichenbach H. . ( 1981; ). Taxonomy of the gliding bacteria. . Ann Rev Microbiol 35:, 339–364. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  23. Ruiz-García C. , Quesada E. , Martínez-Checa F. , Llamas I. , Urdaci M. C. , Béjar V. . ( 2005; ). Bacillus axarquiensis sp. nov. and Bacillus malacitensis sp. nov., isolated from river-mouth sediments in southern Spain. . Int J Syst Evol Microbiol 55:, 1279–1285. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  24. Saitou N. , Nei M. . ( 1987; ). The neighbor-joining method: a new method for reconstructing phylogenetic trees. . Mol Biol Evol 4:, 406–425.[PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  25. Scheldeman P. , Rodríguez-Díaz M. , Goris J. , Pil A. , De Clerck E. , Herman L. , De Vos P. , Logan N. A. , Heyndrickx M. . ( 2004; ). Bacillus farraginis sp. nov., Bacillus fortis sp. nov. and Bacillus fordii sp. nov., isolated at dairy farms. . Int J Syst Evol Microbiol 54:, 1355–1364. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  26. Schönholzer F. , Hahn D. , Zeyer J. . ( 1999; ). Origins and fate of fungi and bacteria in the gut of Lumbricus terrestris L. studied by image analysis. . FEMS Microbiol Ecol 28:, 235–248. [CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  27. Shin Y. K. , Lee J. S. , Kim H. J. , Joo W. H. , Lee J. D. , Park Y. H. . ( 1996; ). DNA base composition (G+C mol%) and its taxonomic implications. . Kor J Life Sci 6:, 72–77.
    [Google Scholar]
  28. Shin K.-H. , Yi H. , Chun J. , Cha C.-J. , Kim I. S. , Hur H.-G. . ( 2004; ). Analysis of the anaerobic bacterial community in the earthworm (Eisenia fetida) intestine. . Agric Chem Biotechnol 47:, 147–152.
    [Google Scholar]
  29. Smibert R. M. , Krieg N. R. . ( 1981; ). General characterization. . In Manual of Methods for General Bacteriology, pp. 409–443. Edited by Gerhardt P. , Murray R. G. E. , Costilow R. N. , Nester E. W. , Wood W. A. , Krieg N. R. , Phillips G. B. . . Washington, DC:: American Society for Microbiology;.
    [Google Scholar]
  30. Stackebrandt E. , Goebel B. M. . ( 1994; ). Taxonomic note: a place for DNA–DNA reassociation and 16S rRNA sequence analysis in the present species definition in bacteriology. . Int J Syst Bacteriol 44:, 846–849. [CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  31. Staneck J. L. , Roberts G. D. . ( 1974; ). Simplified approach to identification of aerobic actinomycetes by thin-layer chromatography. . Appl Microbiol 28:, 226–231. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  32. Tamura K. , Dudley J. , Nei M. , Kumar S. . ( 2007; ). mega4: molecular evolutionary genetics analysis (mega) software version 4.0. . Mol Biol Evol 24:, 1596–1599. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  33. Thompson J. D. , Gibson T. J. , Plewniak F. , Jeanmougin F. , Higgins D. G. . ( 1997; ). The clustal_x windows interface: flexible strategies for multiple sequence alignment aided by quality analysis tools. . Nucleic Acids Res 25:, 4876–4882. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  34. Tripathi G. , Bhardwaj P. . ( 2004; ). Decomposition of kitchen waste amended with cow manure using an epigeic species (Eisenia fetida) and an anecic species (Lampito mauritii). . Bioresour Technol 92:, 215–218. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  35. Vaishampayan P. , Probst A. , Krishnamurthi S. , Ghosh S. , Osman S. , McDowall A. , Ruckmani A. , Mayilraj S. , Venkateswaran K. . ( 2010; ). Bacillus horneckiae sp. nov., isolated from a spacecraft-assembly clean room. . Int J Syst Evol Microbiol 60:, 1031–1037. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  36. Xue Y. , Ventosa A. , Wang X. , Ren P. , Zhou P. , Ma Y. . ( 2008; ). Bacillus aidingensis sp. nov., a moderately halophilic bacterium isolated from Ai-Ding salt lake in China. . Int J Syst Evol Microbiol 58:, 2828–2832. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
http://instance.metastore.ingenta.com/content/journal/ijsem/10.1099/ijs.0.034892-0
Loading
/content/journal/ijsem/10.1099/ijs.0.034892-0
Loading

Data & Media loading...

Supplements

Supplementary material 

PDF

Most Cited This Month

This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Approval was a Success
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error