1887

Abstract

Four Gram-positive bacteria, strains A1-17B, A1-22, A1-3 and A1-8, isolated from the air in the Russian space laboratory Mir, were subjected to a polyphasic taxonomic study. Phylogenetic analysis of the bacteria based on their 16S rDNA sequence showed that they belong to the genera (A1-17B), (A1-22) and (A1-3 and A1-8). Morphological, physiological, chemotaxonomic and genomic characteristics supported the assignments of these strains to these genera, but they could not be classified as any existing species within each respective genus. 16S rDNA similarity values between strain A1-17B and its neighbours, genomovar II, , and , were respectively 99·8, 98·0, 96·4 and 95·4 %. Polyphasic taxonomic evidence indicated that strain A1-17B should be categorized together with the unofficially named genomovar II, but clearly differentiated them from the established species of the genus . Strain A1-22 formed a coherent cluster with , , and in 16S rDNA sequence analysis, but DNA–DNA relatedness values were only 45·5, 35·3, 18·9 and 21·9 %. Strains A1-3 and A1-8 shared 99·9 % 16S rDNA sequence similarity, and strain A1-3 showed the highest level of 16S rDNA similarity, 96·6 %, to . Contrasting biochemical characteristics were also identified. Finally, as a result of the polyphasic taxonomic study, three of the strains are proposed as type strains of novel species: sp. nov. (A1-17B=GTC 867=JCM 11412=DSM 14556), sp. nov. (A1-22=GTC 1041=JCM 11411=DSM 44587) and sp. nov. (A1-3=GTC 863=JCM 11414=DSM 14555).

Loading

Article metrics loading...

/content/journal/ijsem/10.1099/ijs.0.02828-0
2004-05-01
2019-10-21
Loading full text...

Full text loading...

/deliver/fulltext/ijsem/54/3/ijs540827.html?itemId=/content/journal/ijsem/10.1099/ijs.0.02828-0&mimeType=html&fmt=ahah

References

  1. Bergan, T. & Kocur, M. ( 1982; ). Stomatococcus mucilaginosus gen. nov., sp. nov., ep. rev., a member of the family Micrococcaceae. Int J Syst Bacteriol 32, 374–377.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  2. Briglia, M., Rainey, F. A., Stackebrandt, E., Schraa, G. & Salkinoja-Salonen, M. S. ( 1996; ). Rhodococcus percolatus sp. nov., a bacterium degrading 2,4,6-trichlorophenol. Int J Syst Bacteriol 46, 23–30.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  3. Collins, M. D., Pirouz, T., Goodfellow, M. & Minnikin, D. E. ( 1977; ). Distribution of menaquinones in actinomycetes and corynebacteria. J Gen Microbiol 100, 221–230.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  4. Collins, M. D., Hutson, R. A., Båverud, V. & Falsen, E. ( 2000; ). Characterization of a Rothia-like organism from a mouse: description of Rothia nasimurium sp. nov. and reclassification of Stomatococcus mucilaginosus as Rothia mucilaginosa comb. nov. Int J Syst Evol Microbiol 50, 1247–1251.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  5. Criswell-Hudak, B. S. ( 1991; ). Immune response during space flight. Exp Gerontol 26, 289–296.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  6. Decelle, J. G. & Taylor, G. R. ( 1976; ). Autoflora in the upper respiratory tract of Apollo astronauts. Appl Environ Microbiol 32, 659–665.
    [Google Scholar]
  7. Ezaki, T., Hashimoto, Y., Takeuchi, N., Yamamoto, H., Liu, S. L., Miura, H., Matsui, K. & Yabuuchi, E. ( 1988; ). Simple genetic method to identify viridans group streptococci by colorimetric dot hybridization and fluorometric hybridization in microdilution wells. J Clin Microbiol 26, 1708–1713.
    [Google Scholar]
  8. Ezaki, T., Hashimoto, Y. & Yabuuchi, E. ( 1989; ). Fluorometric deoxyribonucleic acid-deoxyribonucleic acid hybridization in microdilution wells as an alternative to membrane filter hybridization in which radioisotopes are used to determine genetic relatedness among bacterial strains. Int J Syst Bacteriol 39, 224–229.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  9. Ezaki, T., Saidi, S. M., Liu, S. L., Hashimoto, Y., Yamamoto, H. & Yabuuchi, E. ( 1990; ). Rapid procedure to determine the DNA base composition from small amounts of gram-positive bacteria. FEMS Microbiol Lett 55, 127–130.
    [Google Scholar]
  10. Ezaki, T., Li, N., Hashimoto, Y., Miura, H. & Yamamoto, H. ( 1994; ). 16S Ribosomal DNA sequences of anaerobic cocci and proposal of Ruminococcus hansenii comb. nov. and Ruminococcus productus comb. nov. Int J Syst Bacteriol 44, 130–136.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  11. Fan, Y., Jin, Z., Tong, J., Li, W., Pasciak, M., Gamian, A., Liu, Z. & Huang, Y. ( 2002; ). Rothia amarae sp. nov., from sludge of a foul water sewer. Int J Syst Evol Microbiol 52, 2257–2260.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  12. Fiedler, F., Schleifer, K. & Kandler, O. ( 1973; ). Amino acid sequence of the threonine-containing mureins of coryneform bacteria. J Bacteriol 113, 8–17.
    [Google Scholar]
  13. Fotos, P. G., Gerencser, M. A. & Yelton, D. B. ( 1984; ). Strain differentiation of Rothia dentocariosa and related isolates by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. Int J Syst Bacteriol 34, 102–106.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  14. Funke, G., Hutson, R. A., Bernard, K. A., Pfyffer, G. E., Wauters, G. & Collins, M. D. ( 1996; ). Isolation of Arthrobacter spp. from clinical specimens and description of Arthrobacter cumminsii sp. nov. and Arthrobacter woluwensis sp. nov. J Clin Microbiol 34, 2356–2363.
    [Google Scholar]
  15. Georg, L. K. & Brown, J. M. ( 1967; ). Rothia, gen. nov., an aerobic genus of the family Actinomycetaceae. Int J Syst Bacteriol 17, 79–88.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  16. Gerencser, M. A. & Bowden, G. H. ( 1986; ). Genus Rothia Georg and Brown 1967 , 68AL. In Bergey's Manual of Systematic Bacteriology, vol. 2, pp. 1342–1346. Edited by P. H. A. Sneath, N. S. Mair, M. E. Sharpe & J. G. Holt. Baltimore: Williams & Wilkins.
  17. Goodfellow, M. ( 1984; ). Reclassification of Corynebacterium fascians (Tilford) Dowson in the genus Rhodococcus, as Rhodococcus fascians comb. nov. Syst Appl Microbiol 5, 225–229.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  18. Goodfellow, M. ( 1986; ). Genus Rhodococcus Zopf 1891, 28AL. In Bergey's Manual of Systematic Bacteriology, vol. 2, pp. 1472–1481. Edited by P. H. A. Sneath, N. S. Mair, M. E. Sharpe & J. G. Holt. Baltimore: Williams & Wilkins.
  19. Goodfellow, M. ( 1992; ). The family Nocardiaceae. In The Prokaryotes, 2nd edn, vol. 2, pp. 1188–1213. Edited by A. Balows, H. G. Trüper, M. Dworkin, W. Harder & K.-H. Schleifer. New York: Springer.
  20. Grimont, P. A. D. ( 1999; ). Taxonomy and classification of bacteria. In Manual of Clinical Microbiology, 7th edn, pp. 249–259. Edited by P. R. Murray, E. J. Baron, M. A. Pfaller, F. C. Tenover & R. H. Yolken. Washington, DC: American Society for Microbiology.
  21. Kawamura, Y., Hou, X.-G., Sultana, F., Liu, S., Yamamoto, H. & Ezaki, T. ( 1995; ). Transfer of Streptococcus adjacens and Streptococcus defectivus to Abiotrophia gen. nov. as Abiotrophia adiacens comb. nov. and Abiotrophia defectiva comb. nov., respectively. Int J Syst Bacteriol 45, 798–803.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  22. Kawamura, Y., Li, Y., Liu, H., Huang, X., Li, Z. & Ezaki, T. ( 2001; ). Bacterial population in Russian space station “Mir”. Microbiol Immunol 45, 819–828.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  23. Keddie, R. M., Collins, M. D. & Jones, D. ( 1986; ). Genus Arthrobacter Conn and Dimmick 1947, 300AL. In Bergey's Manual of Systematic Bacteriology, vol. 2, pp. 1288–1301. Edited by P. H. A. Sneath, N. S. Mair, M. E. Sharpe & J. G. Holt. Baltimore: Williams & Wilkins.
  24. Klatte, S., Kroppenstedt, R. M. & Rainey, F. A. ( 1994; ). Rhodococcus opacus sp. nov., an unusual nutritionally versatile Rhodococcus-species. Syst Appl Microbiol 17, 355–360.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  25. Koch, C., Schumann, P. & Stackebrandt, E. ( 1995; ). Reclassification of Micrococcus agilis (Ali-Cohen 1889) to the genus Arthrobacter as Arthrobacter agilis comb. nov. and emendation of the genus Arthrobacter. Int J Syst Bacteriol 45, 837–839.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  26. Kodama, Y., Yamamoto, H., Amano, N. & Amachi, T. ( 1992; ). Reclassification of two strains of Arthrobacter oxydans and proposal of Arthrobacter nicotinovorans sp. nov. Int J Syst Bacteriol 42, 234–239.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  27. Komagata, K. & Suzuki, K. ( 1987; ). Lipid and cell-wall analysis in bacterial systematics. Methods Microbiol 19, 161–207.
    [Google Scholar]
  28. Kosako, Y., Yabuuchi, E., Naka, T., Fujiwara, N. & Kobayashi, K. ( 2000; ). Proposal of Sphingomonadaceae fam. nov., consisting of Sphingomonas Yabuuchi et al. 1990, Erythrobacter Shiba and Shimidu 1982, Erythromicrobium Yurkov et al. 1994, Porphyrobacter Fuerst et al. 1993, Zymomonas Kluyver and van Niel 1936, and Sandaracinobacter Yurkov et al. 1997, with the type genus Sphingomonas Yabuuchi et al. 1990. Microbiol Immunol 44, 563–575.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  29. Kronvall, G., Lannér-Sjöberg, M., von Stedingk, L. V., Hanson, H. S., Pettersson, B. & Falsen, E. ( 1998; ). Whole cell protein and partial 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis suggest the existence of a second Rothia species. Clin Microbiol Infect 4, 255–263.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  30. Lesher, R. J., Gerencser, M. A. & Gerencser, V. F. ( 1974; ). Morphological, biochemical, and serological characterization of Rothia dentocariosa. Int J Syst Bacteriol 24, 154–159.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  31. Li, Y., Kawamura, Y., Fujiwara, N., Naka, T., Liu, H., Huang, X., Kobayashi, K. & Ezaki, T. ( 2003; ). Chryseobacterium miricola sp. nov., a novel species isolated from condensation water of space station Mir. Syst Appl Microbiol 26, 523–528.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  32. Li, Y., Kawamura, Y., Fujiwara, N., Naka, T., Liu, H., Huang, X., Kobayashi, K. & Ezaki, T. ( 2004; ). Sphingomonas yabuuchiae sp. nov. and Brevundimonas nasdae sp. nov., isolated from the Russian space laboratory Mir. Int J Syst Evol Microbiol 54, 819–825.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  33. Loveland-Curtze, J., Sheridan, P. P., Gutshall, K. R. & Brenchley, J. E. ( 1999; ). Biochemical and phylogenetic analyses of psychrophilic isolates belonging to the Arthrobacter subgroup and description of Arthrobacter psychrolactophilus sp. nov. Arch Microbiol 171, 355–363.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  34. Minnikin, D. E., O'Donnell, A. G., Goodfellow, M., Alderson, G., Athalye, M., Schaal, A. & Parlett, J. H. ( 1984; ). An integrated procedure for extraction of bacterial isoprenoid quinones and polar lipids. J Microbiol Methods 2, 233–241.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  35. Neidhardt, F. C. ( 1990; ). The bacterial cell: structures for growth, survival, and colonization. In Medical Microbiology, 2nd edn, pp. 11–26. Edited by J. C. Sherris, J. J. Champoux, L. Corey, F. C. Neidhardt, J. J. Plorde, C. G. Ray & K. J. Ryan. New York: Elsevier.
  36. Nishiuchi, Y., Baba, T., Hotta, H. H. & Yano, I. ( 1999; ). Mycolic acid analysis in Nocardia species. The mycolic acid compositions of Nocardia asteroides, N. farcinica, and N. nova. J Microbiol Methods 37, 111–122.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  37. Page, R. D. M. ( 1996; ). treeview: an application to display phylogenetic trees on personal computers. Comput Appl Biosci 12, 357–358.
    [Google Scholar]
  38. Pearson, W. R. & Lipman, D. J. ( 1988; ). Improved tools for biological sequence comparison. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 85, 2444–2448.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  39. Reddy, G. S. N., Prakash, J. S. S., Matsumoto, G. I., Stackebrandt, E. & Shivaji, S. ( 2002; ). Arthrobacter roseus sp. nov., a psychrophilic bacterium isolated from an Antarctic cyanobacterial mat sample. Int J Syst Evol Microbiol 52, 1017–1021.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  40. Saitou, N. & Nei, M. ( 1987; ). The neighbor-joining method: a new method for reconstructing phylogenetic trees. Mol Biol Evol 4, 406–425.
    [Google Scholar]
  41. Schleifer, K. H. & Kandler, O. ( 1972; ). Peptidoglycan types of bacterial cell walls and their taxonomic implications. Bacteriol Rev 36, 407–477.
    [Google Scholar]
  42. Schofield, G. M. & Schaal, K. P. ( 1981; ). A numerical taxonomic study of members of the Actinomycetaceae and related taxa. J Gen Microbiol 127, 237–259.
    [Google Scholar]
  43. Stackebrandt, E. & Goebel, B. M. ( 1994; ). Taxonomic note: a place for DNA–DNA reassociation and 16S rRNA sequence analysis in the present species definition in bacteriology. Int J Syst Bacteriol 44, 846–849.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  44. Thompson, J. D., Higgins, D. G. & Gibson, T. J. ( 1994; ). clustal w: improving the sensitivity of progressive multiple sequence alignment through sequence weighting, position-specific gap penalties and weight matrix choice. Nucleic Acids Res 22, 4673–4680.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  45. Wayne, L. G., Brenner, D. J., Colwell, R. R. & 9 other authors ( 1987; ). Report of the ad hoc committee on reconciliation of approaches to bacterial systematics. Int J Syst Bacteriol 37, 463–464.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  46. Yano, I., Yamada, Y. & Suzuki, K. I. ( 1987; ). Analysis of bacterial ingredients. In Bacterial Identification in Accordance with Recent Taxonomy: Use of Phenotypic, Chemical, and Genetic Analysis, pp. 41–85. Edited by E. Yabuuchi, T. Ezaki, Y. H. Park, H. Sugawara, K. I. Suzuki, Y. Yamada, H. Yamanoto & I. Yano. Tokyo: Saikon Publications.
  47. Yoon, J.-H., Cho, Y.-G., Kang, S.-S., Kim, S. B., Lee, S. T. & Park, Y.-H. ( 2000; ). Rhodococcus koreensis sp. nov., a 2,4-dinitrophenol-degrading bacterium. Int J Syst Evol Microbiol 50, 1193–1201.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
http://instance.metastore.ingenta.com/content/journal/ijsem/10.1099/ijs.0.02828-0
Loading
/content/journal/ijsem/10.1099/ijs.0.02828-0
Loading

Data & Media loading...

Most Cited This Month

This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Approval was a Success
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error