1887

Abstract

A novel Gram-positive, motile, endospore-forming, aerobic bacterium was isolated from the NASA Phoenix Lander assembly clean room that exhibits 100 % 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity to two strains isolated from a deep subsurface environment. All strains are rod-shaped, endospore-forming bacteria, whose endospores are resistant to UV radiation up to 500 J m. A polyphasic taxonomic study including traditional phenotypic tests, fatty acid analysis, 16S rRNA gene sequencing and DNA–DNA hybridization analysis was performed to characterize these novel strains. The 16S rRNA gene sequencing convincingly grouped these novel strains within the genus as a separate cluster from previously described species. The similarity of 16S rRNA gene sequences among the novel strains was identical but only 98.1 to 98.5 % with their nearest neighbours ATCC BAA-1209 and CIP 108005. The menaquinone MK-7 was dominant in these novel strains as shown in other species of the genus . The DNA–DNA hybridization dissociation value was <45 % with the closest related species. The novel strains had DNA G+C contents of 51.9 to 52.8 mol%. Phenotypically, the novel strains can be readily differentiated from closely related species by the absence of urease and gelatinase and the production of acids from a variety of sugars including -arabinose. The major fatty acid was anteiso-C as seen in and whereas the proportion of C was significantly different from the closely related species. Based on phylogenetic and phenotypic results, it was concluded that these strains represent a novel species of the genus , for which the name sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is 3PO2SA ( = NRRL B-59348  = NBRC 106274).

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2011-06-01
2019-10-21
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. Microscopic images of sp. nov. (a) Light microscopy (phase-contrast) showing vegetative cells with and without subterminal endospores and free endospores. (b) Scanning electron microscopy of cells of strain 3P02SA showing endospores; bar, 4.0 µm. (c) Transmission electron microscopy of an endospore; bar, 100 nm.

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. Repetitive extragenic palindromic PCR-based DNA fingerprinting of sp. nov. isolates and related type strains of the genus . Grouping of the isolates depicted in the cladogram (a) was based on gel electrophoresis band patterns (b).

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. The evolutionary history of sp. nov. with respect to closely related species of the genus was inferred using the maximum-parsimony method based on 16S rRNA gene sequences. The percentages of replicate trees in which the associated taxa clustered together in the bootstrap test (1000 replicates) are shown next to the branches. Strain numbers and GenBank accession numbers (in parentheses) are given. Bar, 10 substitutions per nucleotide position. The tree topology was in consensus with the neighbour-joining phylogenetic tree.

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