Six Gram-negative, non-gliding, rod-shaped bacterial strains isolated from freshwater sediment were subjected to polyphasic analyses to determine their taxonomic positions. Analysis of the 16S rRNA gene sequences of the six strains revealed that they represent two separate genomic species in a new lineage within the phylum , related to members of the family ‘’, in which they were most closely related to members of the genus (93.4−90.5 %). Two of the isolates, HU1-GD23 and HU1-HG42, had a sequence similarity of 96.2 %, with DNA G+C contents of 39.4 and 38.5 mol%, respectively. They possessed MK-7 as the predominant respiratory quinone and contained high amounts of iso-pentadecanoic acid and 3-hydroxy-iso-heptadecanoic acid in their cell envelopes, properties shared by members of the family ‘’. They were well differentiated from other members of the family ‘’ by additional physiological and biochemical characteristics. In conclusion, strains HU1-GD23 (=KCTC 22306=LMG 24312) and HU1-HG42 (=KCTC 22305=LMG 24324) are considered to represent two novel species of a novel genus, gen. nov., for which the names sp. nov. and sp. nov., are proposed, respectively.


Article metrics loading...

Loading full text...

Full text loading...



  1. An, D. S., Lee, H. G., Im, W. T., Liu, Q. M. & Lee, S. T.(2007).Segetibacter koreensis gen. nov., sp. nov., a novel member of the phylum Bacteroidetes, isolated from the soil of a ginseng field in South Korea. Int J Syst Evol Microbiol 57, 1828–1833.[CrossRef] [Google Scholar]
  2. Atlas, R. M.(2004).Handbook of Microbiological Media, 3rd edn. Boca Raton: CRC Press.
  3. Buck, J. D.(1982). Nonstaining (KOH) method for determination of Gram reactions of marine bacteria. Appl Environ Microbiol 44, 992–993. [Google Scholar]
  4. Button, D. K., Schut, F., Quang, P., Martin, R. & Robertson, B. R.(1993). Viability and isolation of marine bacteria by dilution culture: theory, procedures, and initial results. Appl Environ Microbiol 59, 881–891. [Google Scholar]
  5. Cowan, S. T. & Steel, K. J.(1965).Manual for the Identification of Medical Bacteria. London: Cambridge University Press.
  6. Fautz, E. & Reichenbach, H.(1980). A simple test for flexirubin-type pigments. FEMS Microbiol Lett 8, 87–91.[CrossRef] [Google Scholar]
  7. Felsenstein, J.(1985). Confidence limits on phylogenies: an approach using the bootstrap. Evolution 39, 783–791.[CrossRef] [Google Scholar]
  8. Fitch, W. M.(1971). Toward defining the course of evolution: minimum change for a specific tree topology. Syst Zool 20, 406–416.[CrossRef] [Google Scholar]
  9. Fujita, T., Okamoto, M., Kosako, Y. & Okuhara, M.(1996).Flexibacter japonensis sp. nov., a new species that produces a novel inhibitor of human leukocyte elastase isolated from soil. Curr Microbiol 33, 89–93.[CrossRef] [Google Scholar]
  10. Garrity, G. M. & Holt, J. G.(2001). The road map to the Manual. In Bergey's Manual of Systematic Bacteriology, 2nd edn, vol. 1, pp. 119–166. Edited by D. R. Boone, R. W. Castenholz & G. M. Garrity. New York: Springer.
  11. Hall, T. A.(1999). BioEdit: a user-friendly biological sequence alignment editor and analysis program for Windows 95/98/NT. Nucleic Acids Symp Ser 41, 95–98. [Google Scholar]
  12. Kämpfer, P., Young, C. C., Sridhar, K. R., Arun, A. B., Lai, W. A., Shen, F. T. & Rekha, P. D.(2006). Transfer of [Flexibacter] sancti, [Flexibacter] filiformis, [Flexibacter] japonensis and [Cytophaga] arvensicola to the genus Chitinophaga and description of Chitinophaga skermanii sp. nov. Int J Syst Evol Microbiol 56, 2223–2228.[CrossRef] [Google Scholar]
  13. Kim, B. Y., Weon, H. Y., Yoo, S. H., Hong, S. B., Kwon, S. W., Stackebrandt, E. & Go, S. J.(2007).Niabella aurantiaca gen. nov., sp. nov., isolated from a greenhouse soil in Korea. Int J Syst Evol Microbiol 57, 538–541.[CrossRef] [Google Scholar]
  14. Kimura, M.(1983).The Neutral Theory of Molecular Evolution. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.
  15. Komagata, K. & Suzuki, K.(1987). Lipid and cell-wall analysis in bacterial systematics. Methods Microbiol 19, 161–207. [Google Scholar]
  16. Kumar, S., Tamura, K. & Nei, M.(2004).mega3: integrated software for Molecular Evolutionary Genetics Analysis and sequence alignment. Brief Bioinform 5, 150–163.[CrossRef] [Google Scholar]
  17. Lane, D. J.(1991). 16S/23S rRNA sequencing. In Nucleic Acid Techniques in Bacterial Systematics, pp. 115–175. Edited by E. Stackebrandt & M. Goodfellow. Chichester: Wiley.
  18. Lane, D. J., Pace, B., Olsen, G. J., Stahl, D. A., Sogin, M. L. & Pace, N. R.(1985). Rapid determination of 16S ribosomal RNA sequences for phylogenetic analyses. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 82, 6955–6959.[CrossRef] [Google Scholar]
  19. Lim, J. H., Baek, S. H. & Lee, S. T.(2008).Burkholderia sediminicola sp. nov., isolated from freshwater sediment. Int J Syst Evol Microbiol 58, 565–569.[CrossRef] [Google Scholar]
  20. Ludwig, W., Euzéby, J. & Whitman, W. B.(2008). Draft taxonomic outline of the Bacteroidetes, Planctomycetes, Chlamydiae, Spirochaetes, Fibrobacteres, Fusobacteria, Acidobacteria, Verrucomicrobia, Dictyoglomi, and Gemmatimonadetes. http://www.bergeys.org/outlines/Bergeys_Vol_4_Outline.pdf.
  21. Mesbah, M., Premachandran, U. & Whitman, W. B.(1989). Precise measurement of the G+C content of deoxyribonucleic acid by high-performance liquid chromatography. Int J Syst Bacteriol 39, 159–167.[CrossRef] [Google Scholar]
  22. Muyzer, G., de Waal, E. C. & Uitterlinden, A. G.(1993). Profiling of complex microbial populations by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis analysis of polymerase chain reaction-amplified genes coding for 16S rRNA. Appl Environ Microbiol 59, 695–700. [Google Scholar]
  23. Pedersen, K. & Ekendahl, S.(1990). Distribution and activity of bacteria in deep granitic groundwaters of southeastern Sweden. Microb Ecol 20, 37–52.[CrossRef] [Google Scholar]
  24. Qu, J. H. & Yuan, H. L.(2008).Sediminibacterium salmoneum gen. nov., sp. nov., a member of the phylum Bacteroidetes isolated from sediment of a eutrophic reservoir. Int J Syst Evol Microbiol 58, 2191–2194.[CrossRef] [Google Scholar]
  25. Reichenbach, H.(1989a). Genus Flexibacter Soriano 1945, 92AL emend. In Bergey's Manual of Systematic Bacteriology, 1st edn, vol. 3, pp. 2061–2071. Edited by J. T. Staley, M. P. Bryant, N. Pfennig & J. G. Holt. Baltimore: Williams & Wilkins.
  26. Reichenbach, H.(1989b). Genus I. Cytophaga Winogradsky 1929, 577AL emend. In Bergey's Manual of Systematic Bacteriology, 1st edn, vol. 3, pp. 2015–2050. Edited by J. T. Staley, M. P. Bryant, N. Pfennig & J. G. Holt. Baltimore: Williams & Wilkins.
  27. Saitou, N. & Nei, M.(1987). The neighbor-joining method: a new method for reconstructing phylogenetic trees. Mol Biol Evol 4, 406–425. [Google Scholar]
  28. Sangkhobol, V. & Skerman, V. B. D.(1981).Chitinophaga, a new genus of chitinolytic Myxobacteria. Int J Syst Bacteriol 31, 285–293.[CrossRef] [Google Scholar]
  29. Skerman, V. B. D.(1989). Genus Chitinophaga Sangkhobol and Skerman 1981, 285VP. In Bergey's Manual of Systematic Bacteriology, 1st edn, vol. 3, pp. 2074–2077. Edited by J. T. Staley, M. P. Bryant, N. Pfennig & J. G. Holt. Baltimore: Williams & Wilkins.
  30. Stoecker, K., Bendinger, B., Schöning, B., Nielsen, P. H., Nielsen, J. L., Baranyi, C., Toenshoff, E. R., Daims, H. & Wagner, M.(2006). Cohn's Crenothrix is a filamentous methane oxidizer with an unusual methane monooxygenase. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 103, 2363–2367.[CrossRef] [Google Scholar]
  31. Swindell, S. R. & Plasterer, T. N.(1997).seqman: contig assembly. Methods Mol Biol 70, 75–89. [Google Scholar]
  32. Ten, L. N., Im, W. T., Kim, M. K., Kang, M. S. & Lee, S. T.(2004). Development of a plate technique for screening of polysaccharide-degrading microorganisms by using a mixture of insoluble chromogenic substrates. J Microbiol Methods 56, 375–382.[CrossRef] [Google Scholar]
  33. Thompson, J. D., Gibson, T. J., Plewniak, F., Jeanmougin, F. & Higgins, D. G.(1997). The clustal_x windows interface: flexible strategies for multiple sequence alignment aided by quality analysis tools. Nucleic Acids Res 25, 4876–4882.[CrossRef] [Google Scholar]
  34. Tschech, A. & Pfennig, N.(1984). Growth yield increase linked to caffeate reduction in Acetobacterium woodii. Arch Microbiol 137, 163–167.[CrossRef] [Google Scholar]
  35. Weon, H. Y., Kim, B. Y., Yoo, S. H., Lee, S. Y., Kwon, S. W., Go, S. J. & Stackebrandt, E.(2006).Niastella koreensis gen. nov., sp. nov. and Niastella yeongjuensis sp. nov., novel members of the phylum Bacteroidetes, isolated from soil cultivated with Korean ginseng. Int J Syst Evol Microbiol 56, 1777–1782.[CrossRef] [Google Scholar]
  36. Weon, H. Y., Kim, B. Y., Joa, J. H., Kwon, S. W., Kim, W. G. & Koo, B. S.(2008).Niabella soli sp. nov., isolated from soil from Jeju Island, Korea. Int J Syst Evol Microbiol 58, 467–469.[CrossRef] [Google Scholar]
  37. Widdel, F. & Bak, F.(1992). Gram-negative mesophilic sulfate reducing bacteria. In The Prokaryotes, 2nd edn, vol. 4, pp. 3352–3378. Edited by A. Balows, H. G. Trüper, M. Dworkin, W. Harder & K.-H. Schleifer. New York: Springer
  38. Xie, C. H. & Yokota, A.(2006). Reclassification of [Flavobacterium] ferrugineum as Terrimonas ferruginea gen. nov., comb. nov., and description of Terrimonas lutea sp. nov., isolated from soil. Int J Syst Evol Microbiol 56, 1117–1121.[CrossRef] [Google Scholar]
  39. Yoon, M. H. & Im, W. T.(2007).Flavisolibacter ginsengiterrae gen. nov., sp. nov., and Flavisolibacter ginsengisoli sp. nov., isolated from ginseng cultivating soil. Int J Syst Evol Microbiol 57, 1834–1839.[CrossRef] [Google Scholar]

Data & Media loading...

This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Approval was a Success
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error