16S rRNA gene sequenced-based phylogeny indicates that ATCC 43778 branches within the radiation of type strains. A comparative chemotaxonomic study including fatty acid methyl esters, polar lipids and polyamines reveals significant differences that, in combination with the topology of phylogenetic trees, support a dissection of the genus . The proposals of this study include the transfer of to the genus as comb. nov. (type strain Gsoil 322 =KCTC 12591 =DSM 19916) and the reclassification of as gen. nov., comb. nov. (the type strain of is IMCC1728 =KCCM 42364 =NBRC 102349 =DSM 19915) and of as gen. nov., comb. nov. (the type strain of is BF49 =DSM 19570 =CIP 109700). As a consequence of these reclassifications, emended descriptions of the genera and are provided.


Article metrics loading...

Loading full text...

Full text loading...



  1. Auling, G., Busse, H.-J., Pilz, F., Webb, L., Kneifel, H. & Claus, D.(1991). Rapid differentiation by polyamine analysis, of Xanthomonas strains from phytopathogenic pseudomonads and other members of the class Proteobacteria interacting with plants. Int J Syst Bacteriol 41, 223–228.[CrossRef] [Google Scholar]
  2. Busse, H.-J. & Auling, G.(1988). Polyamine pattern as a chemotaxonomic marker within the Proteobacteria. Syst Appl Microbiol 11, 1–8.[CrossRef] [Google Scholar]
  3. De Soete, G.(1983). A least squares algorithm for fitting additive trees to proximity data. Psychometrika 48, 621–626.[CrossRef] [Google Scholar]
  4. Felsenstein, J.(1981). Evolutionary trees from DNA sequences: a maximum likelihood approach. J Mol Evol 17, 368–376.[CrossRef] [Google Scholar]
  5. Felsenstein, J.(1985). Confidence limits on phylogenies: an approach using the bootstrap. Evolution 39, 783–791.[CrossRef] [Google Scholar]
  6. Felsenstein, J.(1993).phylip (phylogeny inference package), version 3.5c. Distributed by the author. Department of Genome Sciences, University of Washington, Seattle, USA.
  7. Goto, M.(2005). Genus VI. Rhizobacter Goto and Kuwata 1988, 238VP. In Bergey's Manual of Systematic Bacteriology, 2nd edn, vol. 2, part B, pp. 404–406. Edited by D. J. Brenner, N. R. Krieg, J. T. Staley & G. M. Garrity. New York: Springer.
  8. Goto, M. & Kuwata, H.(1988).Rhizobacter daucus gen. nov., sp. nov., the causal agent of carrot bacterial gall. Int J Syst Bacteriol 38, 233–239.[CrossRef] [Google Scholar]
  9. Hamana, K. & Takeuchi, M.(1998). Polyamine profiles as chemotaxonomic markers within alpha, beta, gamma, delta, and epsilon subclasses of class Proteobacteria: distribution of 2-hydroxyputrescine and homospermidine. Microbiol Cult Collect 14, 1–14. [Google Scholar]
  10. Hamana, K., Sato, W., Gouma, K., Yu, J., Ino, Y., Umemura, Y., Mochizuki, C., Takatsuka, K., Kigure, Y. & other authors(2007). Cellular polyamine catalogues of the five classes of the phylum Proteobacteria: distributions of homospermidine within the class Alphaproteobacteria, hydroxyputrescine within the class Betaproteobacteria, norspermidine within the class Gammaproteobacteria, and spermidine within the classes Deltaproteobacteria and Epsilonproteobacteria. Ann Gunma Health Sci 27, 1–16. [Google Scholar]
  11. Kämpfer, P. & Kroppenstedt, R. M.(1996). Numerical analysis of fatty acid patterns of coryneform bacteria and related taxa. Can J Microbiol 42, 989–1005.[CrossRef] [Google Scholar]
  12. Kämpfer, P., Falsen, E. & Busse, H.-J.(2008).Naxibacter varians sp. nov. and Naxibacter haematophilus sp. nov., and emended description of the genus Naxibacter. Int J Syst Evol Microbiol 58, 1680–1684.[CrossRef] [Google Scholar]
  13. Labrenz, M., Collins, M. D., Lawson, P. A., Tindall, B. J., Braker, G. & Hirsch, P.(1998).Antarctobacter heliothermus gen. nov., sp. nov., a budding bacterium from hypersaline and heliothermal Ekho Lake. Int J Syst Bacteriol 48, 1363–1372.[CrossRef] [Google Scholar]
  14. Lapage, S. P., Sneath, P. H. A., Lessel, E. F., Skerman, V. B. D., Seeliger, H. P. R. & Clark, W. A. (editors)(1992).International Code of Nomenclature of Bacteria (1990 Revision). Bacteriological Code. Washington, DC: American Society for Microbiology.
  15. Ludwig, W., Strunk, O., Westram, R., Richter, L., Meier, H., Yadhukumar, Buchner, A., Lai, T., Steppi, S. & other authors(2004).arb: a software environment for sequence data. Nucleic Acids Res 32, 1363–1371.[CrossRef] [Google Scholar]
  16. Muurholm, S., Cousin, S., Päuker, O., Brambilla, E. & Stackebrandt, E.(2007).Pedobacter duraquae sp. nov., Pedobacter westerhofensis sp. nov., Pedobacter metabolipauper sp. nov., Pedobacter hartonius sp. nov. and Pedobacter steynii sp. nov., isolated from a hard-water rivulet. Int J Syst Evol Microbiol 57, 2221–2227.[CrossRef] [Google Scholar]
  17. Nakatsu, C. H., Hristova, K., Hanada, S., Meng, X. Y., Hanson, J. R., Scow, K. M. & Kamagata, Y.(2006).Methylibium petroleiphilum gen. nov., sp. nov., a novel methyl tert-butyl ether-degrading methylotroph of the Betaproteobacteria. Int J Syst Evol Microbiol 56, 983–989.[CrossRef] [Google Scholar]
  18. Sasser, M.(1990). Identification of bacteria by gas chromatography of cellular fatty acids. USFCC Newsl 20, 16 [Google Scholar]
  19. Song, J. & Cho, J. C.(2007).Methylibium aquaticum sp. nov., a betaproteobacterium isolated from a eutrophic freshwater pond. Int J Syst Evol Microbiol 57, 2125–2128.[CrossRef] [Google Scholar]
  20. Stackebrandt, E. & Ebers, J.(2006). Taxonomic parameters revisited: tarnished gold standards. Microbiol Today 33, 152–155. [Google Scholar]
  21. Stackebrandt, E., Frühling, A., Cousin, S., Brambilla, E., Lünsdorf, H. & Verbarg, S.(2008).Methylibium subsaxonicum spec. nov., a betaproteobacterium isolated from a hardwater rivulet. Curr Microbiol 56, 298–305.[CrossRef] [Google Scholar]
  22. Stolz, A., Busse, H.-J. & Kämpfer, P.(2007).Pseudomonas knackmussii sp. nov. Int J Syst Evol Microbiol 57, 572–576.[CrossRef] [Google Scholar]
  23. Tindall, B. J.(1990a). A comparative study of the lipid composition of Halobacterium saccharovorum from various sources. Syst Appl Microbiol 13, 128–130.[CrossRef] [Google Scholar]
  24. Tindall, B. J.(1990b). Lipid composition of Halobacterium lacusprofundi. FEMS Microbiol Lett 66, 199–202.[CrossRef] [Google Scholar]
  25. Trüper, H. G. & de' Clari, L.(1998). Taxonomic note: erratum and correction of further specific epithets formed as substantives (nouns) ‘in apposition’. Int J Syst Bacteriol 48, 615[CrossRef] [Google Scholar]
  26. Yoon, M.-H., Ten, L. N., Im, W.-T. & Lee, S. T.(2007).Methylibium fulvum sp. nov., a member of the Betaproteobacteria isolated from ginseng field soil, and emended description of the genus Methylibium. Int J Syst Evol Microbiol 57, 2062–2066.[CrossRef] [Google Scholar]

Data & Media loading...


[PDF file of Supplementary Tables S1-S3](74 KB)


Polar lipid profiles after separation by two-dimensional TLC. (a) DSM 15970 ; (b) LMG 22953 ; (c) DSM 19916 ; (d) DSM 11587 ; (e) DSM 19915 ; (f) DSM 11901 . DPG, Diphosphatidylglycerol; PG, phosphatidylglycerol; PE, phosphatidylethanolamine; PL1, unknown phospholipid; PN1–2, unknown aminophospholipids; AL, unknown aminolipid.


Most cited this month Most Cited RSS feed

This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Approval was a Success
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error