Strain DC-200 was isolated from homemade compost produced from kitchen refuse and characterized using a polyphasic approach. The isolate was a Gram-positive motile short rod, facultatively aerobic, catalase-positive and oxidase-negative, and was able to grow at 10–37 °C, pH 6.0–9.5 and with up to 5 % of NaCl. The peptidoglycan was of the type B1 alpha and the muramic acid residues were glycolylated. The major fatty acids were anteiso-C and anteiso-C. The predominant respiratory menaquinones were MK-11 and MK-12. The G+C content of the genomic DNA was 70 mol%. Based on the analysis of the 16S rRNA gene sequence, the closest phylogenetic neighbours of strain DC-200 were A5E-52 (98.7 %) and KV-492 (98.2 %). The phenetic characterization of the isolate supports its inclusion within the genus ; however, its distinctive phenotypic features and the results from the 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis and the DNA–DNA hybridization study suggest that the isolate represents a novel species. The name sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is DC-200 (=DSM 19600=LMG 24557).


Article metrics loading...

Loading full text...

Full text loading...



  1. Barreiros, L., Nogales, B., Manaia, C. M., Ferreira, A. C. S., Pieper, D. H., Reis, M. A. & Nunes, O. C.(2003). A novel pathway for mineralization of the thiocarbamate herbicide molinate by a defined bacterial mixed culture. Environ Microbiol 5, 944–953.[CrossRef] [Google Scholar]
  2. Cashion, P., Holder-Franklin, M. A., McCully, J. & Franklin, M.(1977). A rapid method for base ratio determination of bacterial DNA. Anal Biochem 81, 461–466.[CrossRef] [Google Scholar]
  3. De Ley, J., Cattoir, H. & Reynaerts, A.(1970). The quantitative measurement of DNA hybridization from renaturation rates. Eur J Biochem 12, 133–142.[CrossRef] [Google Scholar]
  4. Epstein, E.(1997).The Science of Composting. Lancaster, PA: Technomic Publishing Co. Inc.
  5. Euzéby, J. P. (2008). List of Prokaryotic Names with Standing in Nomenclature, http://www.bacterio.net, last full update 10 April 2008.
  6. Ferreira da Silva, M., Tiago, I., Veríssimo, A., Boaventura, A. R., Nunes, O. C. & Manaia, C. M.(2006). Antibiotic resistance of enterococci and related bacteria in an urban wastewater treatment plant. FEMS Microbiol Ecol 55, 322–329.[CrossRef] [Google Scholar]
  7. Ferreira da Silva, M., Vaz-Moreira, I., Gonzalez-Pajuelo, M., Nunes, O. C. & Manaia, C. M.(2007). Antimicrobial resistance patterns in Enterobacteriaceae isolated from an urban wastewater treatment plant. FEMS Microbiol Ecol 60, 166–176.[CrossRef] [Google Scholar]
  8. Huß, V. A. R., Festl, H. & Schleifer, K. H.(1983). Studies on the spectrophotometric determination of DNA hybridization from renaturation rates. Syst Appl Microbiol 4, 184–192.[CrossRef] [Google Scholar]
  9. Jukes, T. H. & Cantor, C. R.(1969). Evolution of protein molecules. In Mammalian Protein Metabolism, vol. 3, pp. 21–132. Edited by H. N. Munro. New York: Academic Press.
  10. Kageyama, A., Takahashi, Y. & Ōmura, S.(2006).Microbacterium deminutum sp. nov., Microbacterium pumilum sp. nov. and Microbacterium aoyamense sp. nov. Int J Syst Evol Microbiol 56, 2113–2117.[CrossRef] [Google Scholar]
  11. Kageyama, A., Takahashi, Y., Matsuo, Y., Adachi, K., Kasai, H., Shizuri, Y. & Ōmura, S.(2007).Microbacterium flavum sp. nov. and Microbacterium lacus sp. nov., isolated from marine environments. Actinomycetologica 21, 53–58.[CrossRef] [Google Scholar]
  12. Kämpfer, P. & Kroppenstedt, R. M.(1996). Numerical analysis of fatty acid patterns of coryneform bacteria and related taxa. Can J Microbiol 42, 989–1005.[CrossRef] [Google Scholar]
  13. Kumar, S., Tamura, K. & Nei, M.(2004).mega3: Integrated software for Molecular Evolutionary Genetics Analysis and sequence alignment. Brief Bioinform 5, 150–163.[CrossRef] [Google Scholar]
  14. MacKenzie, S. L.(1987). Gas chromatographic analysis of amino acids as the N-heptafluorobutyryl isobutyl esters. J Assoc Off Anal Chem 70, 151–160. [Google Scholar]
  15. Mesbah, M., Premachandran, U. & Whitman, W. B.(1989). Precise measurement of the G+C content of deoxyribonucleic acid by high performance liquid chromatography. Int J Syst Bacteriol 39, 159–167.[CrossRef] [Google Scholar]
  16. Murray, R. G. E., Doetsch, R. N. & Robinow, F.(1994). Determinative and cytological light microscopy. In Methods for General and Molecular Bacteriology, pp. 21–41. Edited by P. Gerhardt, R. G. E. Murray, W. A. Wood & N. R. Krieg. Washington, DC: American Society for Microbiology.
  17. Rhuland, L. E., Work, E., Denman, R. F. & Hoare, D. S.(1955). The behavior of the isomers of α,ϵ-diaminopimelic acid on paper chromatograms. J Am Chem Soc 77, 4844–4846.[CrossRef] [Google Scholar]
  18. Schleifer, K. H. & Seidl, P. H.(1985). Chemical composition and structure of murein. In Chemical Methods in Bacterial Systematics, pp. 201–215. Edited by M. Goodfellow & D. E. Minnikin. London: Academic Press.
  19. Schumann, P., Prauser, H., Rainey, F. A., Stackebrandt, E. & Hirsch, P.(1997).Friedmanniella antarctica gen. nov., sp. nov., an ll-diaminopimelic acid-containing actinomycete from Antarctic sandstone. Int J Syst Bacteriol 47, 278–283.[CrossRef] [Google Scholar]
  20. Smibert, R. M. & Krieg, N. R.(1994). Phenotypic characterization. In Methods for General and Molecular Bacteriology, pp. 611–651. Edited by P. Gerhardt, R. G. E. Murray, W. A. Wood & N. R. Krieg. Washington, DC: American Society for Microbiology.
  21. Stackebrandt, E. & Ebers, J.(2006). Taxonomic parameters revisited: tarnished gold standards. Microbiol Today 33, 152–155. [Google Scholar]
  22. Thompson, J. D., Higgins, D. G. & Gibson, T. J.(1994).clustalw: improving the sensitivity of progressive multiple sequence alignment through sequence weighting, position-specific gap penalties and weight matrix choice. Nucleic Acids Res 22, 4673–4680.[CrossRef] [Google Scholar]
  23. Tindall, B. J.(1989). Fully saturated menaquinones in the archaebacterium Pyrobaculum islandicum. FEMS Microbiol Lett 60, 251–254.[CrossRef] [Google Scholar]
  24. Tóth, E. M., Schumann, P., Borsodi, A. K., Kéki, Z., Kovács, A. L. & Márialigeti, K.(2008).Wohlfahrtiimonas chitiniclastica gen. nov., sp. nov., a new γ-proteobacterium isolated from Wohlfahrtia magnifica (Diptera: Sarcophagidae). Int J Syst Evol Microbiol 58, 976–981.[CrossRef] [Google Scholar]
  25. Uchida, K., Kudo, T., Suzuki, K. & Nakase, T.(1999). A new rapid method of glycolate test by diethyl ether extraction, which is applicable to a small amount of bacterial cells of less than one milligram. J Gen Appl Microbiol 45, 49–56.[CrossRef] [Google Scholar]
  26. Vaz-Moreira, I., Nobre, M. F., Nunes, O. C. & Manaia, C. M.(2007).Gulbenkiania mobilis gen. nov., sp. nov., isolated from treated municipal wastewater. Int J Syst Evol Microbiol 57, 1108–1112.[CrossRef] [Google Scholar]
  27. Vaz-Moreira, I., Silva, E., Manaia, C. M. & Nunes, O. C.(2008). Diversity of bacterial isolates from Portuguese commercial and homemade composts. Microb Ecol 55, 714–722.[CrossRef] [Google Scholar]
  28. Wayne, L. G., Brenner, D. J., Colwell, R. R., Grimont, P. A. D., Kandler, O., Krichevsky, M. I., Moore, L. H., Moore, W. E. C., Murray, R. G. E. & other authors(1987). International Committee on Systematic Bacteriology. Report of the ad hoc committee on reconciliation of approaches to bacterial systematics. Int J Syst Bacteriol 37, 463–464.[CrossRef] [Google Scholar]

Data & Media loading...

Most cited this month Most Cited RSS feed

This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Approval was a Success
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error