A total of 11 isolates were recovered from the blood of , and species in Australia and were characterized using phenotypic and genotypic methods. Comparison of 16S rRNA gene, , and 16S–23S rRNA internal transcribed spacer region sequences from the isolates indicated that they formed three sequence similarity groups that were distinct from one another and from the currently recognized species. Phylogenetic analysis based on alignment of concatenated sequences inferred distinct evolutionary lineages for each of the three groups within the genus . On the basis of these data, we propose the isolates be accommodated in three novel species, namely sp. nov. (type strain AUST/NH4 =CIP 109051 =CCUG 52161 =CSUR B609), sp. nov. (type strain AUST/NH12 =CIP 109057 =CCUG 52167 =CSUR B617) and sp. nov. (type strain AUST/NH20 =CIP 109064 =CCUG 52174 =CSUR B619).


Article metrics loading...

Loading full text...

Full text loading...



  1. Bai, Y., Montgomery, S. P., Sheff, K. W., Chowdhury, M. A., Breiman, R. F., Kabeya, H. & Kosoy, M. Y.(2007).Bartonella strains in small mammals from Dhaka, Bangladesh, related to Bartonella in America and Europe. Am J Trop Med Hyg 77, 567–570. [Google Scholar]
  2. Birtles, R. J. & Raoult, D.(1996). Comparison of partial citrate synthase gene (gltA) sequences for phylogenetic analysis of Bartonella species. Int J Syst Bacteriol 46, 891–897.[CrossRef] [Google Scholar]
  3. Birtles, R. J., Harrison, T. G., Saunders, N. A. & Molyneux, D. H.(1995). Proposals to unify the genera Grahamella and Bartonella, with descriptions of Bartonella talpae comb. nov., Bartonella peromysci comb. nov., and three new species, Bartonella grahamii sp. nov., Bartonella taylorii sp. nov., and Bartonella doshiae sp. nov. Int J Syst Bacteriol 45, 1–8.[CrossRef] [Google Scholar]
  4. Breitschwerdt, E. B. & Kordick, D. L.(2000).Bartonella infection in animals: carriership, reservoir potential, pathogenicity, and zoonotic potential for human infection. Clin Microbiol Rev 13, 428–438.[CrossRef] [Google Scholar]
  5. Castle, K. T., Kosoy, M., Lerdthusnee, K., Phelan, L., Bai, Y., Gage, K. L., Leepitakrat, W., Monkanna, T., Khlaimanee, N. & other authors(2004). Prevalence and diversity of Bartonella in rodents of northern Thailand: a comparison with Bartonella in rodents from southern China. Am J Trop Med Hyg 70, 429–433. [Google Scholar]
  6. Chomel, B. B., Boulouis, H. J., Maruyama, S. & Breitschwerdt, E. B.(2006a).Bartonella spp. in pets and effect on human health. Emerg Infect Dis 12, 389–394.[CrossRef] [Google Scholar]
  7. Chomel, B. B., Kasten, R. W., Henn, J. B. & Molia, S.(2006b).Bartonella infection in domestic cats and wild felids. Ann N Y Acad Sci 1078, 410–415.[CrossRef] [Google Scholar]
  8. Eremeeva, M. E., Gerns, H. L., Lydy, S. L., Goo, J. S., Ryan, E. T., Mathew, S. S., Ferraro, M. J., Holden, J. M., Nicholson, W. L. & other authors(2007). Bacteremia, fever, and splenomegaly caused by a newly recognized Bartonella species. N Engl J Med 356, 2381–2387.[CrossRef] [Google Scholar]
  9. Heller, R., Riegel, P., Hansmann, Y., Delacour, G., Bermond, D., Dehio, C., Lamarque, F., Monteil, H., Chomel, B. & Piémont, Y.(1998).Bartonella tribocorum sp. nov., a new Bartonella species isolated from the blood of wild rats. Int J Syst Bacteriol 48, 1333–1339.[CrossRef] [Google Scholar]
  10. Houpikian, P. & Raoult, D.(2001). 16S/23S rRNA intergenic spacer regions for phylogenetic analysis, identification, and subtyping of Bartonella species. J Clin Microbiol 39, 2768–2778.[CrossRef] [Google Scholar]
  11. Kosoy, M., Morway, C., Sheff, K. W., Bai, Y., Colborn, J., Chalcraft, L., Dowell, S. F., Peruski, L. F., Maloney, S. A. & other authors(2008).Bartonella tamiae sp. nov., a newly recognized pathogen isolated from three human patients from Thailand. J Clin Microbiol 46, 772–775.[CrossRef] [Google Scholar]
  12. Lapage, S. P., Sneath, P. H. A., Lessel, E. F., Skerman, V. B. D., Seeliger, H. P. R. & Clark, W. A. (editors)(1992).International Code of Nomenclature of Bacteria (1990 Revision). Bacteriological Code. Washington, DC: American Society for Microbiology.
  13. La Scola, B., Davoust, B., Boni, M. & Raoult, D.(2002). Lack of correlation between Bartonella DNA detection within fleas, serological results, and results of blood culture in a Bartonella-infected stray cat population. Clin Microbiol Infect 8, 345–351.[CrossRef] [Google Scholar]
  14. La Scola, B., Zeaiter, Z., Khamis, A. & Raoult, D.(2003). Gene-sequence-based criteria for species definition in bacteriology: the Bartonella paradigm. Trends Microbiol 11, 318–321.[CrossRef] [Google Scholar]
  15. Maillard, R., Riegel, P., Barrat, F., Bouillin, C., Thibault, D., Gandoin, C., Halos, L., Demanche, C., Alliot, A. & other authors(2004).Bartonella chomelii sp. nov., isolated from French domestic cattle (Bos taurus). Int J Syst Evol Microbiol 54, 215–220.[CrossRef] [Google Scholar]
  16. Minnick, M. F. & Anderson, B. E.(2006). The genus Bartonella. In The Prokaryotes: a Handbook on the Biology of Bacteria, 3rd edn, vol. 5, pp. 467–492. Edited by M. Dworkin, S. Falkow, E. Rosenberg, K. H. Schleifer & E. Stackebrandt. New York: Springer.
  17. Pitulle, C., Strehse, C., Brown, J. W. & Breitschwerdt, E. B.(2002). Investigation of the phylogenetic relationships within the genus Bartonella based on comparative sequence analysis of the rnpB gene, 16S rDNA and 23S rDNA. Int J Syst Evol Microbiol 52, 2075–2080.[CrossRef] [Google Scholar]
  18. Renesto, P., Gouvernet, J., Drancourt, M., Roux, V. & Raoult, D.(2001). Use of rpoB gene analysis for detection and identification of Bartonella species. J Clin Microbiol 39, 430–437.[CrossRef] [Google Scholar]
  19. Stackebrandt, E., Frederiksen, W., Garrity, G. M., Grimont, P. A. D., Kämpfer, P., Maiden, M. C. J., Nesme, X., Rosselló-Mora, R., Swings, J. & other authors(2002). Report of the ad hoc committee for the re-evaluation of the species definition in bacteriology. Int J Syst Evol Microbiol 52, 1043–1047.[CrossRef] [Google Scholar]
  20. Ying, B., Kosoy, M. Y., Maupin, G. O., Tsuchiya, K. R. & Gage, K. L.(2002). Genetic and ecologic characteristics of Bartonella communities in rodents in southern China. Am J Trop Med Hyg 66, 622–627. [Google Scholar]
  21. Zeaiter, Z., Liang, Z. & Raoult, D.(2002). Genetic classification and differentiation of Bartonella species based on comparison of partial ftsZ gene sequences. J Clin Microbiol 40, 3641–3647.[CrossRef] [Google Scholar]

Data & Media loading...


GenBank accession numbers for reference sequences used in this study. [PDF](40 KB)


Dendrograms representing phylogenetic relationships between species derived from individual alignments of the 16S rRNA gene, the ITS region and the , and genes. [PDF](91 KB)


Most cited this month Most Cited RSS feed

This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Approval was a Success
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error