The ciliate family Cyrtolophosididae Stokes, 1888 contains species that are poorly known from both the morphological and molecular perspectives. To further our understanding of this family, one species, Kahl, 1931 , was redescribed. Cells in our population had a mean size of 15×8 μm. There were six rows of somatic kineties, as well as six dorsal kinetids belonging to sparsely ciliated somatic kineties. The oral apparatus comprised a bipartite paroral membrane and four adoral organelles. The optimal ecological tolerances for pH and O matched those of the environment in which the specimens were collected, but were different for salinity and temperature. To further test the phylogenetic placement of the family Cyrtolophosididae with increased taxon sampling, the small subunit rDNA of three morphospecies was characterized: , sp. ATCC 50986 and . Unconstrained and constrained molecular analyses supported the non-monophyly of the order Cyrtolophosidida. The family Cyrtolophosididae fell out separately from the rest of its order. Haplotypes from previous environmental studies were also placed in a phylogenetic context within the class Colpodea.


Article metrics loading...

Loading full text...

Full text loading...



  1. Anderson, F. E. & Swofford, D. L.(2004). Should we be worried about long-branch attraction in real data sets? Investigations using metazoan 18S rDNA. Mol Phylogenet Evol 33, 440–451.[CrossRef] [Google Scholar]
  2. Bergsten, J.(2005). A review of long-branch attraction. Cladistics 21, 163–193.[CrossRef] [Google Scholar]
  3. Corliss, J. O.(1961).The Ciliated Protozoa: Characterization, Classification, and Guide to the Literature. Oxford: Pergamon Press.
  4. Corliss, J. O.(1979).The Ciliated Protozoa: Characterization, Classification and Guide to the Literature, 2nd edn. Oxford: Pergamon Press.
  5. Cummings, M. P. & Meyer, A.(2005). Magic bullets and golden rules: data sampling in molecular phylogenetics. Zoology 108, 329–336.[CrossRef] [Google Scholar]
  6. de Puytorac, P., Perez-Paniagua, F. & Perez-Silva, J.(1979). A propos d'observations sur la stomatogenèse et l'ultrastructure de cilié Woodruffia metabolica (Johnson et Larson, 1938). Protistologica 15, 231–243. [Google Scholar]
  7. Detcheva, R. B.(1982). Recherches, en Bulgarie, sur les cilies de certaines plages de la Mer Noire et des rivieres y aboutissant. Annales Stn Limnol Besse 15, 231–253. [Google Scholar]
  8. Detcheva, R. B. & de Puytorac, P.(1979). Un nouvel de cilie a micronoyau inclus dans l'enveloppe macronucleaire: le genera Aristerostoma Kahl, 1926. Annales Stn Limnol Besse 13, 247–251. [Google Scholar]
  9. Díaz, S., Martin-González, A., Borniquel, S. & Gutiérrez, J. C.(2002).Cyrtolophosis elongata (Colpodea, Ciliophora): Some aspects of ciliary pattern, division, cortical and nuclear changes during encystment and resting cyst ultrastructure. Eur J Protistol 36, 367–378. [Google Scholar]
  10. Didier, P., De Puytorac, P., Wilbert, N. & Detcheva, R.(1980). A propos d'observations sur l'ultrastructure de cilié Cyrtolophosis mucicola Stokes, 1885. J Eukaryot Microbiol 27, 72–79. [Google Scholar]
  11. Doyle, J. J.(1992). Gene trees and species trees: molecular systematics as one-character taxonomy. Syst Bot 17, 144–163.[CrossRef] [Google Scholar]
  12. Doyle, J. J.(1997). Trees within trees: genes and species, molecules and morphology. Syst Biol 46, 537–553.[CrossRef] [Google Scholar]
  13. Dunthorn, M., Foissner, W. & Katz, L. A.(2008). Molecular phylogenetic analysis of class Colpodea (phylum Ciliophora) using broad taxon sampling. Mol Phylogenet Evol 46, 316–327.[CrossRef] [Google Scholar]
  14. Felsenstein, J.(1978). Cases in which parsimony or compatibility methods will be positively misleading. Syst Zool 27, 401–410.[CrossRef] [Google Scholar]
  15. Foissner, W.(1978). Das Silberliniensystem und die Infraciliatur der Gattungen Platyophrya Kahl, 1926, Cyrtolophosis Stokes, 1885 und Colpoda O.F.M., 1786: ein Beitrag zur Systematik der Colpidida (Ciliata, Vestibulifera). Acta Protozool 17, 215–231. [Google Scholar]
  16. Foissner, W.(1985). Klassifikation und Phylogenie der Colpodea (Protozoa: Ciliophora). Arch Protistenkd 129, 239–290.[CrossRef] [Google Scholar]
  17. Foissner, W.(1993). Colpodea (Ciliophora). Protozoenfauna, vol. 4/1, i–x, 1–798.
  18. Foissner, W.(2002). Neotypification of protists, especially ciliates (Protozoa, Ciliophora). Bull Zool Nom 59, 165–169. [Google Scholar]
  19. Foissner, W., Berger, H. & Schaumburg, J.(1999). Identification and ecology of limnetic plankton ciliates. Inf Bayer Landesamt Wasserwirtschaft 3/99, 1–793. [Google Scholar]
  20. Foissner, W., Agatha, S. & Berger, H.(2002). Soil ciliates (Protozoa, Ciliophora) from Namibia (Southwest Africa) with emphasis on two contrasting environments, the Etosha Region and the Namib Desert. Denisia 5, 962–967. [Google Scholar]
  21. Foissner, W., Moon-van der Staay, S. Y., van der Staay, G. W. M., Hackstein, J. H. P., Krautgartner, W.-D. & Berger, H.(2004). Reconciling classical and molecular phylogenies in the stichotrichines (Ciliophora, Spirotrichea), including new sequences from some rare species. Eur J Protistol 40, 265–281.[CrossRef] [Google Scholar]
  22. Graybeal, A.(1998). Is it better to add taxa or characters to a difficult phylogenetic problem? Syst Biol 47, 9–17.[CrossRef] [Google Scholar]
  23. Hedtke, S. M., Townsend, T. M. & Hillis, D. M.(2006). Resolution of phylogenetic conflict in large data sets by increased taxon sampling. Syst Biol 55, 522–529.[CrossRef] [Google Scholar]
  24. Hendy, M. D. & Penny, D.(1989). A framework for the quantitative study of evolutionary trees. Syst Zool 38, 297–309.[CrossRef] [Google Scholar]
  25. Hillis, D. M.(1998). Taxonomic sampling, phylogenetic accuracy, and investigator bias. Syst Biol 47, 3–8.[CrossRef] [Google Scholar]
  26. Hillis, D. M., Pollock, D. D., McGuire, J. A. & Zwickl, D. J.(2003). Is sparse taxon sampling a problem for phylogenetic inference? Syst Biol 52, 124–126.[CrossRef] [Google Scholar]
  27. Huelsenbeck, J. P. & Hillis, D. M.(1993). Success of phylogenetic methods in the four-taxon case. Syst Biol 42, 247–264.[CrossRef] [Google Scholar]
  28. Huelsenbeck, J. P. & Ronquist, F. R.(2003). MrBayes 3: Bayesian phylogenetic inference under mixed models. Bioinformatics 19, 1572–1574.[CrossRef] [Google Scholar]
  29. ICZN(1999).International Code of Zoological Nomenclature, 4th edn. London, UK: The International Trust for Zoological Nomenclature.
  30. Israel, R. L., Kosakovsky Pond, S. L., Muse, S. V. & Katz, L. A.(2002). Evolution of duplicated alpha-tubulin genes in ciliates. Evolution 56, 1110–1122. [Google Scholar]
  31. Kahl, A.(1926). Neue und wenig bekannte Formen der holotrichen und heterotrichen Ciliaten. Arch Protistenkd 55, 197–438. [Google Scholar]
  32. Kahl, A.(1931). Urtiere oder Protozoa I: Wimpertiere oder Ciliate (Infusoria) 2. Holotricha außer den im 1. Teil behandelten Prostomata. Tierwelt Dtl 21, 181–398. [Google Scholar]
  33. Katz, L. A., Lasek-Nesselquist, E., Bornstein, J. & Muse, S. V.(2004). Dramatic diversity of ciliate histone H4 genes revealed by comparisons of patterns of substitutions and paralog divergences among eukaryotes. Mol Biol Evol 21, 555–562. [Google Scholar]
  34. Kishino, H. & Hasegawa, M.(1989). Evaluation of the maximum likelihood estimate of the evolutionary tree topologies from DNA sequence data and the branching order in Hominoidea. J Mol Evol 29, 170–179.[CrossRef] [Google Scholar]
  35. Kolaczkowski, B. & Thornton, J. W.(2004). Performance of maximum parsimony and likelihood phylogenetics when evolution is heterogeneous. Nature 431, 980–984.[CrossRef] [Google Scholar]
  36. Kosakovsky Pond, S. L., Frost, S. D. W. & Muse, S. V.(2005). HyPhy: hypothesis testing using phylogenies. Bioinformatics 21, 676–679.[CrossRef] [Google Scholar]
  37. Lefèvre, E., Bardot, C., Noël, C., Carrias, J. F., Viscogliosi, E., Amblard, C. & Sime-Ngando, T.(2007). Unveiling fungal zooflagellates as members of freshwater picoeukaryotes: evidence from a molecular diversity study in a deep meromictic lake. Environ Microbiol 9, 61–71.[CrossRef] [Google Scholar]
  38. Lynn, D. H.(1981). The organization and evolution of microtubular organelles in ciliated protozoa. Biol Rev Camb Philos Soc 56, 243–292.[CrossRef] [Google Scholar]
  39. Maddison, W. P.(1997). Gene trees in species trees. Syst Biol 46, 523–536.[CrossRef] [Google Scholar]
  40. Medlin, L., Elwood, H. J., Stickel, S. & Sogin, M. L.(1988). The characterization of enzymatically amplified eukaryotes 16S-like ribosomal RNA coding regions. Gene 71, 491–500.[CrossRef] [Google Scholar]
  41. Nylander, J. A.(2004). MrModeltest v2. Distributed by the author. Evolutionary Biology Center, Uppsala University, Uppsala.
  42. Poe, S. & Swofford, D. L.(1999). Taxon sampling revisited. Nature 398, 299–300. [Google Scholar]
  43. Reize, I. B. & Melkonian, M.(1989). A new way to investigate living flagellated/ciliated cells in the light microscope: immobilization of cells in agarose. Bot Acta 102, 145–151.[CrossRef] [Google Scholar]
  44. Siddall, M. E. & Whiting, M. F.(1999). Long-branch abstractions. Cladistics 15, 9–24.[CrossRef] [Google Scholar]
  45. Stetter, K. O., König, H. & Stackebrandt, E.(1983).Pyrodictium gen. nov., a new genus of submarine disc-shaped sulphur reducing archaebacteria growing optimally at 10 °C. Syst Appl Microbiol 4, 535–551.[CrossRef] [Google Scholar]
  46. Stoeck, T., Schwarz, M. V. J., Boenigk, J., Schweikert, M., von der Heyden, S. & Behnke, A.(2005). Cellular identity of an 18S rRNA gene sequence clade within the class Kinetoplastea: the novel genus Actuariola gen. nov. (Neobodonida) with description of the type species Actuariola framvarensis sp. nov. Int J Syst Evol Microbiol 55, 2623–2635.[CrossRef] [Google Scholar]
  47. Stoeck, T., Foissner, W. & Lynn, D. H.(2007). Small-subunit rDNA phylogenies suggest that Epalxella antiquorum (Penard, 1922) Corliss, 1960 (Ciliophora, Odontostomatida) is a member of the Plagyopylea. J Eukaryot Microbiol 54, 436–442.[CrossRef] [Google Scholar]
  48. Swofford, D.(2002).paup*. Phylogenetic analysis using parsimony (*and other methods). Sunderland, MA: Sinauer Associates.
  49. van Hannen, E. J., Mooij, W. M., van Agterveld, M. P., Gons, H. J. & Laanbroek, H. J.(1999). Detritus-dependent development of the microbial community in an experimental system: qualitative analysis by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis. Appl Environ Microbiol 65, 2478–2484. [Google Scholar]

Data & Media loading...

Most cited this month Most Cited RSS feed

This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Approval was a Success
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error