1887

Abstract

A novel marine hypotrichous ciliate, sp. nov., was recently isolated from a mangrove wetland in Hong Kong. Its morphology, morphogenesis and systematic position have been investigated. The novel species is diagnosed by combined features of morphology, ciliature and nuclear apparatus, while its ontogenetic events present a stable pattern: (i) the six streaks of the undulating membrane (UM) and cirral anlagen are segmented in a 1 : 3 : 3 : 3 : 4 : 4 pattern from left to right, and form three frontal, four frontoventral, one buccal, five ventral and five transverse cirri; (ii) the dorsal structure is similar to most other oxytrichids; that is, in a ‘4+2’ pattern with three caudal cirri being formed. Based on the small-subunit rDNA sequence, the novel species is different from its congeners by between 21 and 35 bp, with sequence identities from 0.978 to 0.987. All molecular trees exhibited a similar topology: the monophyly of species of the genus is not completely supported in our analyses, and approximately unbiased tests (both including and excluding the novel species) also reject the possibility that is a monophyletic lineage, as indicated by the morphology-based classification.

Loading

Article metrics loading...

/content/journal/ijsem/10.1099/ijs.0.000253
2015-07-01
2020-09-29
Loading full text...

Full text loading...

/deliver/fulltext/ijsem/65/7/2292.html?itemId=/content/journal/ijsem/10.1099/ijs.0.000253&mimeType=html&fmt=ahah

References

  1. Agamaliev F.G. ( 1978;). Morphology of some free-living ciliates of the Caspian Sea. Acta Protozool 17 419444.
    [Google Scholar]
  2. Alekperov I.K., Musayev M.A. ( 1988;). New and rare free-living infusoria from fresh waters and soil of the Apsheron peninsula. Zool Zh 67 19041909 (in Russian with English summary) .
    [Google Scholar]
  3. Berger H. ( 1999). Monograph of the Oxytrichidae (Ciliophora, Hypotrichia) (Monographiae Biologicae, vol. 78) Dordrecht: Springer; [CrossRef].
    [Google Scholar]
  4. Berger H. ( 2006). Monograph of the Urostyloidea (Ciliophora, Hypotricha) (Monographiae Biologicae, vol. 85) Dordrecht: Springer;.
    [Google Scholar]
  5. Berger H. ( 2008). Monograph of the Amphisiellidae and Trachelostylidae (Ciliophora, Hypotricha) (Monographiae Biologicae, vol. 88) Dordrecht: Springer;.
    [Google Scholar]
  6. Berger H. ( 2011). Monograph of the Gonostomatidae and Kahliellidae (Ciliophora, Hypotricha) (Monographiae Biologicae, vol. 90) Dordrecht: Springer;. [CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  7. Berger H., Foissner W. ( 1987;). Morphology and biometry of some soil hypotrichs (Protozoa: Ciliophora). Zool Jahrb Syst 114 193239.
    [Google Scholar]
  8. Berger H., Foissner W. ( 1997;). Cladistic relationships and generic characterization of oxytrichid hypotrichs (Protozoa, Ciliophora). Arch Protistenkd 148 125155 [CrossRef].
    [Google Scholar]
  9. Berger H., Foissner W., Adam H. ( 1985;). Morphological variation and comparative analysis of morphogenesis in Parakahliella macrostoma (Foissner, 1982) nov. gen. and Histriculus muscorum (Kahl, 1932), (Ciliophora, Hypotrichida). Protistologica (Paris) 21 295311.
    [Google Scholar]
  10. Bernhard D., Stechmann A., Foissner W., Ammermann D., Hehn M., Schlegel M. ( 2001;). Phylogenetic relationships within the class Spirotrichea (Ciliophora) inferred from small subunit rRNA gene sequences. Mol Phylogenet Evol 21 8692 [CrossRef] [PubMed].
    [Google Scholar]
  11. Buitkamp U. ( 1977;). Die Ciliatenfauna der Savanne von Lamto (Elfenbeinküste). Acta Protozool 16 249276 (in German) .
    [Google Scholar]
  12. Chen L., Liu W., Liu A., Al-Rasheid K.A.S., Shao C. ( 2013a;). Morphology and molecular phylogeny of a new marine hypotrichous ciliate, Hypotrichidium paraconicum n. sp. (Ciliophora, Hypotrichia). J Eukaryot Microbiol 60 588600 [CrossRef] [PubMed].
    [Google Scholar]
  13. Chen X., Yan Y., Hu X., Zhu M., Ma H., Warren A. ( 2013b;). Morphology and morphogenesis of a soil ciliate, Rigidohymena candens (Kahl, 1932) Berger, 2011 (Ciliophora, Hypotricha, Oxytrichidae), with notes on its molecular phylogeny based on small-subunit rDNA sequence data. Int J Syst Evol Microbiol 63 19121921 [CrossRef] [PubMed].
    [Google Scholar]
  14. Dragesco J. ( 1972;). Ciliés libres de la cuvette tchadienne. Ann Fac Sci Univ Fed Cameroun 11 7191 (in French) .
    [Google Scholar]
  15. Dragesco J., Dragesco-Kernéis A. ( 1986;). Ciliés libres de l'Afrique intertropicale. Introduction à la connaissance et à l'étude des ciliés. Faune Trop 26 1559 (in French) .
    [Google Scholar]
  16. Fan Y., Chen X., Hu X., Shao C., Al-Rasheid K.A.S., Al-Farraj S.A., Lin X. ( 2014;). Morphology and morphogenesis of Apoholosticha sinica n.g., n. sp. (Ciliophora, Hypotrichia), with consideration of its systematic position among urostylids. Eur J Protistol 50 7888 [CrossRef] [PubMed].
    [Google Scholar]
  17. Foissner W. ( 1980;). Taxonomische Studien über die Ciliaten des Grossglocknergebietes (Hohe Tauern, Österreich). IX. Ordnungen Heterotrichida und Hypotrichida. Ber Nat Med Ver Salzburg 5 71117.
    [Google Scholar]
  18. Foissner W. ( 1996;). Ontogenesis in ciliated protozoa, with emphasis on stomatogenesis. . In Ciliates: Cells as Organisms, pp. 95177. Edited by Hausmann K., Bradbury P. C. Jena: Gustav Fischer;.
    [Google Scholar]
  19. Foissner W., Blatterer H., Berger H., Kohmann F. ( 1991;). Taxonomische und okologische Revision der Ciliaten des Saprobiensystems – Band I: Cyrtophorida, Oligotrichida, Hypotrichia, Colpodea. Informationsberichte des Bayer. Landesamtes fur Wasserwirtschaft 1/91 1478.
    [Google Scholar]
  20. Foissner W., Berger H. ( 1999;). Identification and ontogenesis of the nomen nudum hypotrichs (Protozoa: Ciliophora) Oxytricha nova ( = Sterkiella nova sp. n.) and O. trifallax ( = S. histriomuscorum). Acta Protozool 38 215248.
    [Google Scholar]
  21. Foissner W., Agatha S., Berger H. ( 2002;). Soil ciliates (Protozoa, Ciliophora) from Namibia (Southwest Africa), with emphasis on two contrasting environments, the Etosha Region and the Namib Desert. Denisia 5 11459.
    [Google Scholar]
  22. Foissner W., Moon-van der Staay S.Y., Staay G.W.M., Hackstein J.H.P., Krautgartner W.-D., Berger H. ( 2004;). Reconciling classical and molecular phylogenies in the stichotrichines (Ciliophora, Spirotrichea), including new sequences from some rare species. Eur J Protistol 40 265281 [CrossRef].
    [Google Scholar]
  23. Foissner W., Filker S., Stoeck T. ( 2014;). Schmidingerothrix salinarum nov. spec. is the molecular sister of the large oxytrichid clade (Ciliophora, Hypotricha). J Eukaryot Microbiol 61 6174 [CrossRef] [PubMed].
    [Google Scholar]
  24. Gelei J., Szabados M. ( 1950;). Tömegprodukció városi esövízpocsolyában (Massenproduktion in einer städtischen Regenwasserpfütze). Ann Biol Univ Szeged 1 249294 (in Hungarian with German translation and Russian summary) .
    [Google Scholar]
  25. Grolière C.A. ( 1969;). Ètude comparée de la morphogenèse au cours de la bipartition, chez plusieurs espèces de cilies hypotrichs. Ann Stn Limnol Besse 4 335365.
    [Google Scholar]
  26. Hall T.A. ( 1999;). BioEdit: a user-friendly biological sequence alignment editor and analysis program for Windows 95/98/NT. Nucleic Acids Symp Ser 41 9598.
    [Google Scholar]
  27. Hu X., Hu X., Al-Rasheid K.A.S., Al-Farraj S.A., Song W. ( 2011;). Insights into the phylogeny of sporadotrichid ciliates (Protozoa, Ciliophora: Hypotricha) based on genealogical analyses of multiple molecular markers. Chin J Oceanol Limnol 29 96102 [CrossRef].
    [Google Scholar]
  28. Huang J., Chen Z., Song W., Berger H. ( 2014;). Three-gene based phylogeny of the Urostyloidea (Protista, Ciliophora, Hypotricha), with notes on classification of some core taxa. Mol Phylogenet Evol 70 337347 [CrossRef] [PubMed].
    [Google Scholar]
  29. Jiang J., Huang J., Li L., Shao C., Al-Rasheid K.A., Al-Farraj S.A., Chen Z. ( 2013;). Morphology, ontogeny, and molecular phylogeny of two novel bakuellid-like hypotrichs (Ciliophora: Hypotrichia), with establishment of two new genera. Eur J Protistol 49 7892 [CrossRef] [PubMed].
    [Google Scholar]
  30. Jones E.E. ( 1974). The Protozoa of Mobile Bay, Alabama (University of South Alabama Monographs, vol. 1) Mobile, AL: University of South Alabama;.
    [Google Scholar]
  31. Jung J., Park K., Min G. ( 2014;). Morphology and molecular phylogeny of Pseudouroleptus jejuensis nov. spec., a new soil ciliate (Ciliophora, Spirotrichea) from South Korea. Acta Protozool 53 195206.
    [Google Scholar]
  32. Kahl A. ( 1932;). Urtiere oder Protozoa I: Wimpertiere oder Ciliata (Infusoria) 3. Spirotricha. . In Die Tierwelt Deutschlands, pp. 399650 vol. 25 Jena: Gustav Fischer (in German);.
    [Google Scholar]
  33. Kahl A. ( 1935;). Urtiere oder Protozoa I: Wimpertiere oder Ciliata (Infusoria) 4.Peritricha und Chonotricha. . In Die Tierwelt Deutschlands, pp. 651886 vol. 30(I–IV) Jena: Gustav Fischer;.
    [Google Scholar]
  34. Küppers G.C., Claps M. ( 2013;). Hypotrichous ciliates (Protozoa: Ciliophora) from a temporary pond in Argentina, with redescription of Apoamphisiella hymenophora (Stokes, 1886) Berger, 1999. Zootaxa 3626 5576 [CrossRef].
    [Google Scholar]
  35. Küppers G.C., Paiva T.S., Borges B.N., Harada M.L., Garraza G.G., Mataloni G. ( 2011;). An Antarctic hypotrichous ciliate, Parasterkiella thompsoni (Foissner) nov. gen., nov. comb., recorded in Argentinean peat-bogs: morphology, morphogenesis, and molecular phylogeny. Eur J Protistol 47 103123 [CrossRef] [PubMed].
    [Google Scholar]
  36. Kwon C., Shin M. ( 2008;). Two newly recorded ciliates, Oxytricha longigranulosa O. marina (Ciliophora: Spirotrichea: Sporadotrichida) from Korea. Korean J Syst Zool 24 8188 [CrossRef].
    [Google Scholar]
  37. Li L., Khan S.N., Ji D., Shin M.K., Berger H. ( 2011;). Morphology and small subunit (SSU) rRNA gene sequence of the new brackish water ciliate Neobakuella flava n.g., n. sp. (Ciliophora, Spirotricha, Bakuellidae) and SSU rRNA gene sequences of six additional hypotrichs from Korea. J Eukaryot Microbiol 58 339351 [CrossRef] [PubMed].
    [Google Scholar]
  38. Li F., Xing Y., Li J., Al-Rasheid K.A., He S., Shao C. ( 2013;). Morphology, morphogenesis and small subunit rRNA gene sequence of a soil hypotrichous ciliate, Perisincirra paucicirrata (Ciliophora, Kahliellidae), from the shoreline of the Yellow River, North China. J Eukaryot Microbiol 60 247256 [CrossRef] [PubMed].
    [Google Scholar]
  39. Lu X., Gao F., Shao C., Hu X., Warren A. ( 2014;). Morphology, morphogenesis and molecular phylogeny of a new marine ciliate, Trichototaxis marina n. sp. (Ciliophora, Urostylida). Eur J Protistol 50 524537 [CrossRef] [PubMed].
    [Google Scholar]
  40. Lv Z., Chen L., Chen L., Shao C., Miao M., Warren A. ( 2013;). Morphogenesis and molecular phylogeny of a new freshwater ciliate, Notohymena apoaustralis n. sp. (Ciliophora, Oxytrichidae). J Eukaryot Microbiol 60 455466 [CrossRef] [PubMed].
    [Google Scholar]
  41. Medlin L., Elwood H.J., Stickel S., Sogin M.L. ( 1988;). The characterization of enzymatically amplified eukaryotic 16S-like rRNA-coding regions. Gene 71 491499 [CrossRef] [PubMed].
    [Google Scholar]
  42. Miller M.A., Pfeiffer W., Schwartz T. Creating the CIPRES Science Gateway for inference of large phylogenetic trees. . In Proceedings of the Gateway Computing Environments Workshop (GCE), pp. 18 14 November 2010, New Orleans, LA, USA .
    [Google Scholar]
  43. Nieto J.J., Calvo P., Martin J., Torres A. ( 1984;). Divisional and regenerative morphogenesis in the hypotrichous ciliate, Histriculus sp. Acta Protozool 23 187195.
    [Google Scholar]
  44. Nylander J.A.A. ( 2004). MrModeltest 2.2. Program distributed by the author., Uppsala: Evolutionary Biology Centre, Uppsala University;.
    [Google Scholar]
  45. Page R.D.M. ( 1996;). TreeView: an application to display phylogenetic trees on personal computers. Comput Appl Biosci 12 357358 [PubMed].
    [Google Scholar]
  46. Park K.M., Jung J.H., Min G.S. ( 2013;). Morphology, morphogenesis, and molecular phylogeny of Anteholosticha multicirrata n. sp. (Ciliophora, Spirotrichea) with a note on morphogenesis of A. pulchra (Kahl, 1932) Berger, 2003. J Eukaryot Microbiol 60 564577 [CrossRef] [PubMed].
    [Google Scholar]
  47. Petz W., Foissner W. ( 1997;). Morphology and infraciliature of some soil ciliates (Protozoa, Ciliophora) from continental Antarctica, with notes on the morphogenesis of Sterkiella histriomuscorum . Polar Rec (Gr Brit) 33 307326 [CrossRef].
    [Google Scholar]
  48. Ronquist F., Huelsenbeck J.P. ( 2003;). MrBayes 3: Bayesian phylogenetic inference under mixed models. Bioinformatics 19 15721574 [CrossRef] [PubMed].
    [Google Scholar]
  49. Schmidt S.L., Bernhard D., Schlegel M., Foissner W. ( 2007;). Phylogeny of the Stichotrichia (Ciliophora; Spirotrichea) reconstructed with nuclear small subunit rRNA gene sequences: discrepancies and accordances with morphological data. J Eukaryot Microbiol 54 201209 [CrossRef] [PubMed].
    [Google Scholar]
  50. Shao C., Ding Y., Al-Rasheid K.A.S., Al-Farraj S.A., Warren A., Song W. ( 2013;). Establishment of a new hypotrichous genus, Heterotachysoma n. gen. and notes on the morphogenesis of Hemigastrostyla enigmatica (Ciliophora, Hypotrichia). Eur J Protistol 49 93105 [CrossRef] [PubMed].
    [Google Scholar]
  51. Shao C., Chen L., Pan Y., Warren A., Miao M. ( 2014a;). Morphology and phylogenetic position of the oxytrichid ciliates, Urosoma salmastra (Dragesco and Dragesco-Kernéis, 1986) Berger, 1999 and U. karinae sinense nov. sspec. (Ciliophora, Hypotrichia). Eur J Protistol 50 593605 [CrossRef] [PubMed].
    [Google Scholar]
  52. Shao C., Lv Z., Jin L., Warren A. ( 2014b;). Morphogenesis of a unique pseudourostylid ciliate, Trichototaxis songi (Ciliophora, Urostylida). Eur J Protistol 50 6877 [CrossRef] [PubMed].
    [Google Scholar]
  53. Shao C., Lv Z., Pan Y., Al-Rasheid K.A.S., Yi Z. ( 2014c;). Morphology and phylogenetic analysis of two oxytrichid soil ciliates from China, Oxytricha paragranulifera n. sp. and Oxytricha granulifera Foissner and Adam, 1983 (Protista, Ciliophora, Hypotrichia). Int J Syst Evol Microbiol 64 30163027 [CrossRef] [PubMed].
    [Google Scholar]
  54. Shimodaira H. ( 2002;). An approximately unbiased test of phylogenetic tree selection. Syst Biol 51 492508 [CrossRef] [PubMed].
    [Google Scholar]
  55. Shin M.K., Kim W. ( 1994;). Morphology and biometry of two oxytrichid species of genus Histriculus Corliss, 1960 (Ciliophora, Hypotrichida, Oxytrichidae) from Seoul, Korea. Korean J Zool 37 113119.
    [Google Scholar]
  56. Singh J., Kamra K. ( 2013;). Paraurosomoida indiensis gen. nov., sp. nov., an oxytrichid (Ciliophora, Hypotricha) from Kyongnosla Alpine Sanctuary, including note on non-oxytrichid Dorsomarginalia. Eur J Protistol 49 600610 [CrossRef] [PubMed].
    [Google Scholar]
  57. Singh J., Kamra K., Sapra G.R. ( 2013;). Morphology, ontogenesis, and molecular phylogeny of an Indian population of Cyrtohymena (Cyrtohymenides shii, including remarks on the subgenus. Eur J Protistol 49 283297 [CrossRef] [PubMed].
    [Google Scholar]
  58. Stamatakis A. ( 2006;). RAxML-VI-HPC: maximum likelihood-based phylogenetic analyses with thousands of taxa and mixed models. Bioinformatics 22 26882690 [CrossRef] [PubMed].
    [Google Scholar]
  59. Stamatakis A., Hoover P., Rougemont J. ( 2008;). A rapid bootstrap algorithm for the RAxML Web servers. Syst Biol 57 758771 [CrossRef] [PubMed].
    [Google Scholar]
  60. Tamura K., Dudley J., Nei M., Kumar S. ( 2007;). mega4: molecular evolutionary genetics analysis (mega) software version 4.0. Mol Biol Evol 24 15961599 [CrossRef] [PubMed].
    [Google Scholar]
  61. Wilbert N. ( 1975;). Eine verbesserte Technik der Protargolimprägnation für Ciliaten. Mikrokosmos 64 171179 (in German) .
    [Google Scholar]
  62. Zhang Q., Yi Z., Fan X., Warren A., Gong J., Song W. ( 2014;). Further insights into the phylogeny of two ciliate classes Nassophorea and Prostomatea (Protista, Ciliophora). Mol Phylogenet Evol 70 162170 [CrossRef] [PubMed].
    [Google Scholar]
http://instance.metastore.ingenta.com/content/journal/ijsem/10.1099/ijs.0.000253
Loading
/content/journal/ijsem/10.1099/ijs.0.000253
Loading

Data & Media loading...

Most cited this month Most Cited RSS feed

This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Approval was a Success
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error