Over the course of the past decade, actinomycetes have been isolated from the placentas of horses diagnosed with nocardioform placentitis. The incidence of this infection has generally been low, with typically no more than 30 animals affected in most years, but the incidence increased through 1999, with placentas from 144 mares found to be infected. Approximately half of the cases result in loss of the foal. A typical actinomycete with branching mycelium was isolated from placental lesions, and a comparison of the sequence of the 16S rDNA gene against the public databases indicated a relationship to members of the suborder Pseudonocardineae. Phylogenetic analysis of representative isolates revealed a close relationship to Crossiella cryophila, and subsequent polyphasic comparisons determined that these isolates represent a novel species of Crossiella, for which the name Crossiella equi sp. nov. is proposed, with strain LDDC 22291-98(T) (= NRRL B-24104(T) = DSM 44580(T)) as the type strain.


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