Two novel strains of Propionigenium maris able to reductively debrominate 2,4,6-tribromophenol (TBP) to monobromophenols were isolated from marine hemichordate and polychaete burrows. These two strains, DSL-1 and ML-1, were anaerobic, non-motile rods that stained Gram-negative and required 0.05% yeast extract for growth. Strain DSL-1 fermented pyruvate and succinate to predominantly butyrate and strain ML-1 fermented glucose and succinate primarily to propionate. No inorganic terminal electron acceptors were identified. The pH and temperature optima for growth were 7.6 and 30 degrees C for strain DSL-1 and 7.0 and 32 degrees C for strain ML-1, respectively; doubling times for strains DSL-1 and ML-1 were 0.32 h and 0.30 h, respectively. Both strains required 2-3% (w/v) NaCl for optimal growth. Morphological and physiological features, as well as the results of 16S rDNA sequence analysis, showed these to be new strains of Propionigenium maris. Because they differ from the P. maris type strain (DSM 9537T) in a number of respects, including their ability to rapidly debrominate di- and tribromophenols, and in their specific habitats, the species description is amended to include these ecologically important properties.


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