Five psychrophilic Gram-negative, sulfate-reducing bacteria were isolated from marine sediments off the coast of Svalbard. All isolates grew at the temperature of -1·7 °C. In batch cultures, strain PSv29 had the highest growth rate at 7 °C strains ASv26 and LSv54 had the highest growth rate at 10 °C, and strains LSv21 and LSv514 had the highest growth rate at 18 °C. The new isolates used the most common fermentation products in marine sediments, such as acetate, propionate, butyrate, lactate and hydrogen, but only strain ASv26 was able to oxidize fatty acids completely to CO. The new strains had growth optima at neutral pH and marine salt concentration, except for LSv54 which grew fastest with 1% NaCl. Sulfite and thiosulfate were used as electron acceptors by strains ASv26, PSv29 and LSv54, and all strains except PSv29 grew with Fe (ferric citrate) as electron acceptor. Chemotaxonomy based on cellular fatty acid patterns and menaquinones showed good agreement with the phylogeny based on 16S rRNA sequences. All strains belonged to the δ subclass of but had at least 9% evolutionary distance from known sulfate reducers. Due to the phylogenetic and phenotypic differences between the new isolates and their closest relatives, establishment of the new genera gen. nov., gen. nov. and gen. nov. is proposed, with strain ASv26 as the type strain of the type species sp. nov., LSv21 as the type strain of sp. nov., PSv29 as the type strain of the type species sp. nov., LSv54 as the type strain of the type species sp. nov. and LSv514 as the type strain of sp. nov.


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