Significant changes have been made in the systematics of the genus (class ) since it was expanded by revision in 1987 to include 23 groups and eight sub-groups. Since that time, two additional spiroplasmas have been assigned group numbers and species names. More recently, specific epithets have been assigned to nine previously designated groups and three sub-groups. Also, taxonomic descriptions and species names have been published for six previously ungrouped spiroplasmas. These six new organisms are: (strain PLHS-1) (group XXVI), (strain TALS-2) (group XXVII), (strain PALS-1) (group XXVIII), (strain HYOS-1) (group XXXI), (strain TABS-2) (group XXXII) and (strain TAUS-1) (group XXXIII). Also, group XVII, which became vacant when strain DF-1 () was transferred to group VIII, has been filled with strain Tab 4c. The discovery of these strains reflects continuing primary search in insect reservoirs, particularly horse flies and deer flies (Diptera:Tabanidae). In the current revision, new group designations for 10 spiroplasma strains, including six recently named organisms, are proposed. Three unnamed but newly grouped spiroplasmas are strain TIUS-1 (group XXIX; ATCC 51751) from a typhiid wasp (Hymenoptera: Tiphiidae), strain BIUS-1 (group XXX; ATCC 51750) from floral surfaces of the tickseed sunflower ( sp.) and strain BARC 1901 (group XXXIV; ATCC 700283). Strain BARC 2649 (ATCC 700284) from has been proposed as a new sub-group of group VIII. Strains TIUS-1 and BIUS-1 have unusual morphologies, appearing as helices at only certain stages in culture. In this revision, potentially important intergroup serological relationships observed between strain DW-1 (group II) from a neotropical species and certain sub-group representatives of group I spiroplasmas are also reported.

Keyword(s): Mollicutes and Spiroplasma

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