1887

Abstract

Significant changes have been made in the systematics of the genus (class ) since it was expanded by revision in 1987 to include 23 groups and eight sub-groups. Since that time, two additional spiroplasmas have been assigned group numbers and species names. More recently, specific epithets have been assigned to nine previously designated groups and three sub-groups. Also, taxonomic descriptions and species names have been published for six previously ungrouped spiroplasmas. These six new organisms are: (strain PLHS-1) (group XXVI), (strain TALS-2) (group XXVII), (strain PALS-1) (group XXVIII), (strain HYOS-1) (group XXXI), (strain TABS-2) (group XXXII) and (strain TAUS-1) (group XXXIII). Also, group XVII, which became vacant when strain DF-1 () was transferred to group VIII, has been filled with strain Tab 4c. The discovery of these strains reflects continuing primary search in insect reservoirs, particularly horse flies and deer flies (Diptera:Tabanidae). In the current revision, new group designations for 10 spiroplasma strains, including six recently named organisms, are proposed. Three unnamed but newly grouped spiroplasmas are strain TIUS-1 (group XXIX; ATCC 51751) from a typhiid wasp (Hymenoptera: Tiphiidae), strain BIUS-1 (group XXX; ATCC 51750) from floral surfaces of the tickseed sunflower ( sp.) and strain BARC 1901 (group XXXIV; ATCC 700283). Strain BARC 2649 (ATCC 700284) from has been proposed as a new sub-group of group VIII. Strains TIUS-1 and BIUS-1 have unusual morphologies, appearing as helices at only certain stages in culture. In this revision, potentially important intergroup serological relationships observed between strain DW-1 (group II) from a neotropical species and certain sub-group representatives of group I spiroplasmas are also reported.

Keyword(s): Mollicutes and Spiroplasma
Loading

Article metrics loading...

/content/journal/ijsem/10.1099/00207713-48-1-1
1998-01-01
2022-05-28
Loading full text...

Full text loading...

/deliver/fulltext/ijsem/48/1/ijs-48-1-1.html?itemId=/content/journal/ijsem/10.1099/00207713-48-1-1&mimeType=html&fmt=ahah

References

  1. Abalain-Colloc M. L., Williamson D. L., Carle P., Abalain J.H., Bonnet F., Tully J. G., Konai M., Whitcomb R. F., Bov• J. M., Chastel C. 1993; Division of group XVI spiroplasmas into subgroups. Int J Syst Bacteriol 43:342
    [Google Scholar]
  2. Adams J. R., Whitcomb R. F., Tully J. G., Clark E. A., Rose D.L., Carle P., Konai M., Bové J. M., Henegar R. B., Williamson D. L. 1997; Spiroplasma alleghenense sp. nov., a new species from the scorpionfly Planorpa helena (Mecop-tera: Panorpidae). Int J Syst Bacteriol 47:759–762
    [Google Scholar]
  3. Aluotto B. B., Wittier R. G., Williams C. O., Faber J. E. 1970; Standardized bacteriologic techniques for characterization of Mycoplasma species. Int J Syst Bacteriol 20:35–58
    [Google Scholar]
  4. Bové J. M., Mouches C., Carle-Junca P., Degorce-Dumas J. R., Tully J. G., Whitcomb R. F. 1983; Spiroplasmas of group I: the Spiroplasma citri cluster. Yale J Biol Med 56:573–582
    [Google Scholar]
  5. Carle P., Laigret F., Tully J. G., Bové J. M. 1995; Heterogeneity of genome sizes within the genus Spiro-plasma. Int J Syst Bacteriol 45:178–181
    [Google Scholar]
  6. Carle P., Rose D. L., Tully J. G., Bové J. M. 1992; The genome size of spiroplasmas and other mollicutes. IOM Lett 2:263
    [Google Scholar]
  7. Carle P., Saillard C., Bové J. M. 1983; DNA extraction and purification. Methods Mycoplasmol 1:295–299
    [Google Scholar]
  8. Carle P., Saillard C., Bové J. M. 1983; Determination of guanine plus cytosine content of DNA. Methods Mycoplasmol 1:301–308
    [Google Scholar]
  9. Carle P., Whitcomb R. F., Hackett K. J., Tully J. G., Rose D. L., Bové J. M., Henegar R. B., Konai M., Williamson D. L. 1997; Spiroplasma diabroticae sp. nov., from the southern corn rootworm beetle Diabrotica undecimpunctata (Coleop-tera: Chrysomelidae). Int J Syst Bacteriol 47:78–80
    [Google Scholar]
  10. Clark T. B. 1982; Spiroplasmas: diversity of arthropod reservoirs and host-parasite relationships. Science 212:57–59
    [Google Scholar]
  11. Clark T. B., Whitcomb R. F., Tully J. G., Mouches C., Saillard C., Bové J. M., Wróblewski H., Carle P., Rose D. L., Henegar R. B., Williamson D. L. 1985; Spiroplasma melliferum, a new species from the honey bee (Apis mellifera). Int J Syst Bacteriol 35:296–308
    [Google Scholar]
  12. French F. E., Whitcomb R. F., Tully J. G., Carle P., Bové J. M., Henegar R. B., Adams J. R., Gasparich G. E., Williamson D.L. 1997; Spiroplasma lineolae sp. nov. from the horse fly Tabanus lineola (Diptera: Tabanidae). Int J Syst Bacteriol 41:1078–1081
    [Google Scholar]
  13. Gasparich G. E., Saillard C., Clark E. A., Konai M., French F.E., Tully J. G., Hackett K. J., Whitcomb R. F. 1993; Serologic and genomic relatedness of group VIII and group XVII spiroplasmas and subdivision of spiroplasma group VIII into subgroups. Int J Syst Bacteriol 43:338–341
    [Google Scholar]
  14. Grau O., Laigret F., Carle P., Tully J. G., Rose D. L., Bové J. M. 1991; Identification of a plant-derived mollicute as a strain of an avian pathogen, Mycoplasma iowae, and its implications for mollicute taxonomy. Int J Syst Bacteriol 41:473–478
    [Google Scholar]
  15. Gundersen D. E., Lee l.-M., Rehner S. A., Davis R. E., Kingsbury D. T. 1994; Phylogeny of mycoplasmalike organisms (phytoplasmas): a basis for their classification. J Bacteriol 176:5244–5254
    [Google Scholar]
  16. Guo Y. H., Chen T. A., Whitcomb R. F., Rose D. L., Tully J., Williamson D.L., Ye X. D., Chen Y. X. 1990; Spiroplasma chinense sp. nov. from flowers of Calystegia hederacea in China. Int J Syst Bacteriol 40:421–425
    [Google Scholar]
  17. Hackett K. J., Clark E. A., Whitcomb R. F., Camp M., Tully J. G. 1996; Amended data on arginine utilization by Spiroplasma species. Int J Syst Bacteriol 46:912–915
    [Google Scholar]
  18. Hackett K. J., Lynn D. E., Williamson D. L., Ginsberg A., Whitcomb R. F. 1986; Cultivation of the Drosophila sex ratio spiroplasma. Science 232:1253–1255
    [Google Scholar]
  19. Hackett K. J., Whitcomb R. F., Clark T. B., Henegar R. B., Lynn D. E., Wagner A. G., Tully J. G., Gasparich G. E., Rose D. L., Carle P., Bové J. M., Konai M., Clark E. A., Adams J., Williamson D. L. 1996; Spiroplasma leptinotarsae sp. nov., a mollicute uniquely adapted to its host, the Colorado potato beetle, Leptinotarsa decemlineata (Coleoptera: Chry-somelidae). Int J Syst Bacteriol 46:906–911
    [Google Scholar]
  20. Hackett K. J., Whitcomb R. F., French F. E., Tully J. G., Gasparich G. E., Rose D. L., Carle P., Bové J. M., Henegar R. B., Clark T. B., Konai M., Clark E. A., Williamson D. L. Spiroplasma corruscae sp. nov., from a firefly beetle (Coleoptera: Lampyridae) and tabanid flies (Diptera: Tabanidae). Int J Syst Bacteriol 46:947–950
    [Google Scholar]
  21. Hackett K. J., Whitcomb R. F., Tully J. G., Rose D. L., Carle P., Bové J. M., Henegar R. B., Clark T. B., Adams J., Williamson D. L. 1993; Spiroplasma insolitum sp. nov., a new species of group I spiroplasma with an unusual DNA base composition. Int J Syst Bacteriol 43:272–277
    [Google Scholar]
  22. Hélias C., Vazeille-Falcoz M., Le Goff F., Abalain-Colloc M. L., Rhodain M., Carle P., Whitcomb R. F., Williamson D. L., Tully J. G., Bové J. M., Chastel C. 1998; Spiroplasma turonicum sp. nov. from Haematopota horseflies (Diptera: Tabanidae) in France. Int J Syst Bacteriol 48: in press
    [Google Scholar]
  23. International Committee on Systematic Bacteriology Sub-committee on Taxonomy of Mycoplasmatales 1977; Minutes of interim meeting. 22 September 1976. Int J Syst Bacteriol 27392–394
    [Google Scholar]
  24. International Committee on Systematic Bacteriology Sub-committee on the Taxonomy of Mollicutes 1995; Revised minimum standards for descriptions of new species of the class Mollicutes (Division Tenericutes). Int J Syst Bacteriol605–612
    [Google Scholar]
  25. Junca P., Saillard C., Tully J. G., Garcia-Jurado O., Degorce-Dumas J. R., Mouches C., Vignault J. C., Vogel R., McCoy R., Whitcomb R. F., Williamson D. L., Latrille J., Bové J. M. 1980; Caractérisation de spiroplasmes isolés d’insectes et de fleurs de France continentale, de Corse et du Maroc. Proposition pour une classification des spiroplasmes. C R Hebd Seances Acad Sci Ser 290:1209–1212
    [Google Scholar]
  26. Konai M., Clark E. A., Camp M., Koch A. L., Whitcomb R. F. 1996; Temperature ranges, growth optima, and growth rates of Spiroplasma Spiroplasmataceae, class Mollicutes) species. Curr Microbiol 32:314–319
    [Google Scholar]
  27. Konai M., Whitcomb R. F., French F. E., Tully J. G., Rose D.L., Carle P., Bové J. M., Hackett K. J., Henegar R. B., Clark T. B., Williamson D. L. 1997; Spiroplasma litorale sp. nov., from tabanid flies (Tabanidae: Diptera) in the Southeastern United States. Int J Syst Bacteriol 47:359–362
    [Google Scholar]
  28. Konai M., Whitcomb R. F., Tully J. G., Rose D. L., Carle P., Bové J. M., Henegar R. B., Hackett K. J., Clark T. B., Williamson D. L. 1995; Spiroplasma velocicrescens sp. nov., from the vespid wasp Monobia quadridens. Int J Syst Bacteriol 45:203–206
    [Google Scholar]
  29. Markham P. G., Clark T.B., Whitcomb R. F. 1983; Culture techniques for spiroplasmas from arthropods. Methods Mycoplasmol 2:217–223
    [Google Scholar]
  30. Neimark H. C., Lange C. S. 1990; Pulsed-field electrophoresis indicates full-length mycoplasma chromosomes range widely in size. Nucleic Acids Res 18:5443–5448
    [Google Scholar]
  31. Neimark H. C., Tully J. G., Rose D., Lange C. 1992; Chromosome size polymorphism among mollicutes. Proceedings of the 9th International Congress of the International Organization for Mycoplasmology. IOM Lett 2:261
    [Google Scholar]
  32. Pyle L. E., Corcoran L. E., Cocks B. G., Bergemann A. D., Whitley J. C., Finch L. R. 1988; Pulsed-field electrophoresis indicates larger-than-expected sizes for mycoplasma genomes. Nucleic Acids Res 16:6015–6025
    [Google Scholar]
  33. Saglio P., L'Hospital M., Laflféche D., Dupont G., Bové J. M., Tully J. G., Freundt E. A. 1973; Spiroplasma citri gen. and sp. n.: a mycoplasma-like organism associated with ‘stubborn’disease of citrus. Int J Syst Bacteriol 23:191–204
    [Google Scholar]
  34. Saillard C., Vignault J. C., Bové J. M., Raie A., Tully J. G., Williamson D. L., Fos A., Gamier M., Gadeau A., Carle P., Whitcomb R. F. 1987; Spiroplasmaphoeniceum sp. nov., a plant-pathogenic species from Syria. Int J Syst Bacteriol 37:106–115
    [Google Scholar]
  35. Stevens C., Tang A. Y., Jenkins E., Goins R. L., Tully J. G., Rose D. L., Konai M., Williamson D. L., Carle P., Bové J. M., Hackett K. J., French F. E., Wedincamp J., Henegar R. B., Whitcomb R. F. 1997; Spiroplasma lampyridicola sp. nov., from the firefly beetle Photuris pennsylvanicus. Int J Syst Bacteriol 47:709–712
    [Google Scholar]
  36. Toth K. F., Harrison N., Sears B. B. 1994; Phylogenetic relationships among members of the class Mollicutes deduced from rps3 gene sequences. Int J Syst Bacteriol 44:119–124
    [Google Scholar]
  37. Tully J. G. 1983; Dark-field microscopy. Methods Myco-plasmol 1:35–37
    [Google Scholar]
  38. Tully J. G. 1983; Cloning and filtration techniques for mycoplasmas. Methods Mycoplasmol 1:173–177
    [Google Scholar]
  39. Tully J. G. 1995 Determination of cholesterol and poly-oxyethylene requirements of mollicutes. In Molecular and Diagnostic Procedures in Mycoplasmology vol 1 pp 381–389 Edited by Razin S., Tully J. G. San Diego, CA: Academic Press;
    [Google Scholar]
  40. Tully J. G., Bové J. M., Laigret F., Whitcomb R. F. 1993; Revised taxonomy of the class Mollicutes: proposed elevation of a monophyletic cluster of arthropod-associated mollicutes to ordinal rank (Entomoplasmatales ord. nov.), with provision for familial rank to separate species with nonhelical morphology (Entomoplasmataceae fam. nov.) from helical species (Spiroplasmataceae), and emended descriptions of the order Mycoplasmatales, family Myco-plasmataceae. Int J Syst Bacteriol 43:378–385
    [Google Scholar]
  41. Tully J. G., Razin S. (editors) 1996 Appendix. In Molecular and Diagnostic Procedures in Mycoplasmology vol 2 pp 460–462 Diego San. CA: Academic Press;
    [Google Scholar]
  42. Tully J. G., Rose D. L., Clark E., Carle P., Bové J. M., Henegar R. B., Whitcomb R. F., Colflesh D. E., Williamson D.L. 1987; Revised group classification of the genus Spiroplasma (class Mollicutes), with proposed new groups XII to XXIII. Int J Syst Bacteriol 37:357–364
    [Google Scholar]
  43. Tully J. G., Rose D. L., Yunker C. E., Carle P., Bové J. M., Williamson D. L., Whitcomb R. F. 1995; Spiroplasma ixodetis sp. nov., a new species from Ixodes pacificus ticks collected in Oregon. Int J Syst Bacteriol 45:23–28
    [Google Scholar]
  44. Wayne L. G., Brenner D. J., Colwell R. R., Grimont P. A. D., Kandler P., Krichevsky M. I., Moore L. H., Moore W. E.G., Murray R. G. E., Stackebrandt E., Starr M. P., Trüper H. G. 1987; Report of the ad hoc committee on reconciliation of approaches to bacterial systematics. Int J Syst Bacteriol 37:463–464
    [Google Scholar]
  45. Weisburg W. G., Barns S. M., Pelletier D. A., Lane D. J. 1991; 16S ribosomal DNA amplification for phylogenetic study. J Bacteriol 173:697–703
    [Google Scholar]
  46. Weisburg W. G., Tully J. G., Rose D.L., Petzel J. P., Oyaizu H., Yang D., Mandelco L., Sechrest J., Lawrence T. G., Van Etten J., Maniloff J., Woese C. R. 1989; A phylogenetic analysis of the mycoplasmas: basis for their classification. J Bacteriol 171:6455–6467
    [Google Scholar]
  47. Whitcomb R. F. 1983; Culture media for spiroplasmas. Methods Mycoplasmol 1:147–158
    [Google Scholar]
  48. Whitcomb R. F., Bové J. M., Chen T. A., Tully J. G., Williamson D. L. 1987; Proposed criteria for an interim serogroup classification for members of the genus Spiro-plasma (class Mollicutes). Int J Syst Bacteriol 37:82–84
    [Google Scholar]
  49. Whitcomb R. F., Chastel C., Abalain-Colloc M., Stevens C., Tully J. G., Rose D. L., Carle P., Bové J. M., Henegar R. B., Hackett K. J., Clark T. B., 8 i Williamson D. L. 1993; Spiro-plasma cantharicola sp. nov., from cantharid beetles (Cole-optera: Cantharidae). Int J Syst Bacteriol 43:421–424
    [Google Scholar]
  50. Whitcomb R. F., Chen T. A., Williamson D. L., Liao C., Tully J. G., Bové J. M., Mouches C., Rose D. L., Coan M. E., Clark T. B. 1986; Spiroplasma kunkelii sp. nov.: characterization of the etiological agent of corn stunt disease. Int J Syst Bacteriol 36:170–178
    [Google Scholar]
  51. Whitcomb R. F., Clark T. B., Tully J. G., Chen T. A., Bové J. M. 1983; Serological classification of spiroplasmas. Current status. Yale J Biol Med 56:453–459
    [Google Scholar]
  52. Whitcomb R. F., French F. E., Tully J. G., Carle P., Henegar R. B., Hackett K. J., Adams J. R., Williamson D. L. 1997; Spiroplasma species, groups, and subgroups from North American Tabanidae. Curr Microbiol 35:287–293
    [Google Scholar]
  53. Whitcomb R. F., French F. E., Tully J. G., Gasparich G. E., Rose D. L., Carle P., Bové J. M., Henegar R. B., Konai M., Hackett K. J., Adams J. R., Clark T. B., Williamson D.L. 1997; Spiroplasma chrysopicola sp. nov., Spiroplasma gladiatoris sp. nov., Spiroplasma helicoides sp. nov., and Spiroplasma tabanidicola sp. nov., from tabanid (Diptera: Tabanidae) flies. Int J Syst Bacteriol 47:713–719
    [Google Scholar]
  54. Whitcomb R. F., French F. E., Tully J. G., Rose D. L., Carle P. M., Bové J. M., Clark E. A., Henegar R. B., Konai M., Hackett K. J., Adams J. R., Williamson D. L. 1997; Spiroplasma montanense sp. nov., from Hybomitra horse flies at northern latitudes in North America. Int J Syst Bacteriol 47:720–723
    [Google Scholar]
  55. Whitcomb R. F., French F. E., Tully J. G., Williamson D. L., Carle P., Bové J. M., Henegar R. B., Hackett K. J. 1992; Identification of Spiroplasma species and groups from tabanid flies. IOM Lett 4:296–297
    [Google Scholar]
  56. Whitcomb R. F., Gasparich G. E., French F. E., Tully J. G., Rose D. L., Carle P., Bové J. M., Henegar R. B., Konai M., Hackett K. J., Adams J., Clark T. B., Williamson D. L. 1996; Spiroplasma syrphidicola sp. nov., from a syrphid fly (Diptera: Syrphidae). Int J Syst Bacteriol 46:797–801
    [Google Scholar]
  57. Whitcomb R. F., Hackett K. J. 1996 Identification of mollicutes from insects. In Molecular and Diagnostic Procedures in Mycoplasmology vol 2 pp 313–322 Edited by Tully J. G., Razin S., Diego San. CA: Academic Press;
    [Google Scholar]
  58. Whitcomb R. F., Hackett K. J., Clark E. A. 1986 Cloning by limiting dilution in liquid media: an improved alternative for cloning mollicute species. Proceedings of the 6th International Congress on Mycoplasmology Birmingham: Alabama; August 26–31 p 167
    [Google Scholar]
  59. Whitcomb R. F., Tully J. G., Clark T. B., Williamson D. L., Bové J. M. 1982; Revised serological classification of spiroplasmas, new provisional groups and recommend-ations for serotyping of isolates. Curr Microbiol 7:291–296
    [Google Scholar]
  60. Whitcomb R. F., Tully J. G., McCawley P., Rose D. L. 1982; Application of the growth inhibition test to Spiroplasma taxonomy. Int J Syst Bacteriol 32:387–394
    [Google Scholar]
  61. Whitcomb R. F., Tully J. G., Rose D. L., Carle P., Bové J. M., Henegar R. B., Hackett K. J., Clark T. B., Konai M., Adams J., Williamson D. L. 1993; Spiroplasma monobiae sp. nov., from the vespid wasp Monobia quadridens (Hymenoptera: Vespidae). Int J Syst Bacteriol 43:256–260
    [Google Scholar]
  62. Whitcomb R. F., Tully J. G., Williamson D. L., Bové J. M., French F. E., Konai M., Gasparich G., Abalain-Colloc M., Saillard C., Chastel C., Carle P., Rose D. L., Henegar R. B., Clark E. A., Hackett K. J. 1992; Revised classification of spiroplasmas. IOM Lett 2:134
    [Google Scholar]
  63. Whitcomb R. F., Vignault J.-C., Tully J. G., Rose D. L., Carle P., Bove J. M., Hackett K. J., Henegar R. B., Konai M., Williamson D. L. 1993; Spiroplasma clarkii sp. nov. from the green June beetle (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae). Int J Syst Bacteriol 43:261–265
    [Google Scholar]
  64. Williamson D. L. 1983; Specialized electron microscopic techniques for spiroplasmas in plant and insect tissues. Methods Mycoplasmol 1:71–76
    [Google Scholar]
  65. Williamson D. L., Adams J. R., Whitcomb R.F., Tully J. G., Carle P., Konai M., Bové J. M., Henegar R. B. 1997; Spiroplasma platyhelix sp. nov., a new mollicute with unusual morphology and genome size from the dragonfly Pachydiplax longipennis. Int J Syst Bacteriol 47:763–766
    [Google Scholar]
  66. Williamson D. L., Poulson D. F. 1979 Sex ratio organisms (spiroplasmas) of Drosophila. In The Mycoplasmas vol 3 pp 175–208 Edited by Whitcomb R. F., Tully J. G. New York: Academic Press;
    [Google Scholar]
  67. Williamson D. L., Tully J. G., Rosen L., Rose D. L., Whitcomb R. F., Abalain-Colloc M.-L., Carle P., Bové J. M., Smyth J. 1996; Spiroplasma diminutum sp. nov., from Culex annulus mosquitoes collected in Taiwan. Int J Syst Bacteriol 46:229–233
    [Google Scholar]
  68. Williamson D. L., Tully J. G., Whitcomb R. F. 1979; Serological relationships of spiroplasmas as shown by combined deformation and metabolism inhibition tests. Int J Syst Bacteriol 29:345–351
    [Google Scholar]
  69. Williamson D. L., Whitcomb R. F. 1983; Special serological tests for spiroplasma identification. Methods Mycoplasmol 2:249–259
    [Google Scholar]
  70. Williamson D. L., Whitcomb R. F., Tully J. G. 1978; The spiroplasma deformation test, a new serological method. Curr Microbiol 1:203–207
    [Google Scholar]
  71. Williamson D. L., Whitcomb R. F., Tully J. G., Gasparich G., Rose D.L., Carle P., Bové J. M., Hackett K. J., Henegar R. B., Konai M., Chastel C., French F. E. 1996; Revised group classification of the genus Spiroplasma. IOM Lett 4:217
    [Google Scholar]
http://instance.metastore.ingenta.com/content/journal/ijsem/10.1099/00207713-48-1-1
Loading
/content/journal/ijsem/10.1099/00207713-48-1-1
Loading

Data & Media loading...

Most cited this month Most Cited RSS feed

This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Approval was a Success
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error