A novel aerobic hyperthermophilic archaeon was isolated from a coastal solfataric vent at Kodakara-Jima Island, Japan. The new isolate, strain K1, is the first strictly aerobic organism growing at temperatures up to 100°C. It grows optimally at 90 to 95°C, pH 7.0, and a salinity of 3.5%. The cells are spherical shaped and 0.8 to 1.2 μm in diameter. Various proteinaceous complex compounds served as substrates during aerobic growth. Thiosulfate stimulates growth without producing HS. The core lipids consist solely of C-isopranyl archaeol(glycerol diether). The G+C content of the genomic DNA is 67 mol%. Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA sequence indicates that strain K1 is a new member of Crenarchaeota. On the basis of our results, the name gen. nov., sp. nov. is proposed (type strain: K1; JCM 9820).


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