Phenotypic and genetic traits of porcine intestinal spirochete strain P43/6/78 (= ATCC 51139) (T = type strain), which is pathogenic and weakly beta-hemolytic, were determined in order to confirm the taxonomic position of this organism and its relationships to previously described species of intestinal spirochetes. In BHIS broth, P43/6/78 cells had a doubling time of 1 to 2 h and grew to a maximum cell density of 2 x 10 cells per ml at 37 to 42°C. They hydrolyzed hippurate, utilized D-glucose, D-fructose, sucrose, D-trehalose, D-galactose, D-mannose, maltose, -acetyl-D-glucosamine, D-glucosamine, pyruvate, L-fucose, D-cellobiose, and D-ribose as growth substrates, and produced acetate, butyrate, ethanol, H, and CO as metabolic products. They consumed substrate amounts of oxygen and had a G+C content (24.6 mol%) similar to that of B78 (25.9 mol%). Phenotypic traits that could be used to distinguish strain P43/6/78 from and included its ultrastructural appearance (each strain P43/6/78 cell had 8 or 10 periplasmic flagella, with 4 or 5 flagella inserted at each end, and the cells were thinner and shorter and had more pointed ends than and cells), its faster growth rate in liquid media, its hydrolysis of hippurate, its lack of β-glucosidase activity, and its metabolism of D-ribose. DNA-DNA relative reassociation experiments in which the S1 nuclease method was used revealed that P43/6/78 was related to, but was genetically distinct from, both B78 (level of sequence homology, 25 to 32%) and B256 (level of sequence homology, 24 to 25%). These and previous results indicate that intestinal spirochete strain P43/6/78 represents a distinct species. Therefore, we propose that strain P43/6/78 should be designated as the type strain of a new species,


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