1887

Abstract

Abstract

A total of 46 glutamate-degrading strains of the genus , including 36 new isolates, were examined for deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA)-DNA homology, protein patterns produced by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, and physiological characteristics in order to determine the differences between and “” Thirty-four newly isolated strains could be assigned to the “” group; two strains were classified as nontoxigenic strains. The levels of DNA-DNA homology between and “” were only 10 to 19%, and the protein patterns showed that there were great differences between both groups and other glutamate-degrading species. Biochemical tests supported these results. In contrast to , all “”, strains fermented carbohydrates (at least glucose and maltose); they also produced lipase and degraded ethanolamine. Moreover, , like other glutamate-degrading species, needed a higher concentration of yeast extract than “ when it was grown on glutamate. On the basis of our results we propose sp. nov., nom. rev. The type strain is strain NCTC 543 (= DSM 4474).

Loading

Article metrics loading...

/content/journal/ijsem/10.1099/00207713-39-2-127
1989-04-01
2022-07-01
Loading full text...

Full text loading...

/deliver/fulltext/ijsem/39/2/ijs-39-2-127.html?itemId=/content/journal/ijsem/10.1099/00207713-39-2-127&mimeType=html&fmt=ahah

References

  1. Anthony C., Guest J. R. 1968; Deferred metabolism of glucose by Clostridium tetanomorphum. J. Gen. Microbiol. 54:277–286
    [Google Scholar]
  2. Barker H. A. 1937; On the fermentation of glutamic acid. Enzymologia 2:175–182
    [Google Scholar]
  3. Barker H. A. 1939; The use of glutamic acid for the isolation and identification of Clostridium cochlearium and Cl. tetanomorphum. Arch. Mikrobiol. 10:376–384
    [Google Scholar]
  4. Bergey D. H., Harrison F. C., Breed R., Hammer B. W., Huntoon F. M. (ed.) 1923 Bergey's manual of determinative bacteriology, 1st ed.. The Williams & Wilkins Co.; Baltimore:
    [Google Scholar]
  5. Breed R. S., Murray E. G. D., Smith N. R. (ed.). 1957 Bergey's manual of determinative bacteriology, 7th ed..634–693 The Williams & Wilkins Co.; Baltimore:
    [Google Scholar]
  6. Buckel W. 1980; Analysis of the fermentation pathways of clostridia using double labelled glutamate. Arch. Microbiol. 127:167–169
    [Google Scholar]
  7. Buckel W., Barker H. A. 1974; Two pathways of glutamate by anaerobic bacteria. J. Bacteriol. 117:1248–1260
    [Google Scholar]
  8. Bulloch W., Bulloch W. E., Douglas S. R., Henry H., McIntosh J., O'Brien R. A., Robertson M., Wolf C. G. L. 1919; Report on the anaerobic infections of wounds and the bacteriological and serological problems arising therefrom. Med. Res. Comm. (Great Britain) Spec. Rep. Ser. 39:1–182
    [Google Scholar]
  9. Cato E. P., George W. L., Finegold S. M. 1986; Genus Clostridium Prazmowski 1880, 23AL. 1141–1200 In Sneath P. H. A., Mair N. S., Sharpe M. E., Holt J. G. (ed.) Bergey's manual of systematic bacteriology vol. 2 The Williams & Wilkins Co.; Baltimore:
    [Google Scholar]
  10. Cato E. P., Hash D. E., Holdeman L. V., Moore W. E. C. 1982; Electrophoretic study of Clostridium species. J. Clin. Microbiol. 15:688–702
    [Google Scholar]
  11. Clifton C. E. 1942; The utilization of amino acids and related compounds by Clostridium tetani. J. Bacteriol. 44:179–183
    [Google Scholar]
  12. De Ley J., Cattoir H., Reynaerts R. 1970; The quantitative measurement of DNA hybridization from renaturation rates. Eur. J. Biochem. 12:133–142
    [Google Scholar]
  13. Elsden S. R., Hilton M. G. 1978; Volatile acid production from threonine, valine, leucine, and isoleucine by clostridia. Arch. Microbiol. 117:165–172
    [Google Scholar]
  14. Elsden S. R., Hilton M. G., Waller J. M. 1976; The end products of the metabolism of aromatic acids by clostridia. Arch. Microbiol. 107:283–288
    [Google Scholar]
  15. Gonzales C., Sierra G. 1961; Lipolytic activity of some anaerobic bacteria. Nature (London) 189:601–602
    [Google Scholar]
  16. Gottschalk G., Andreesen J. R., Hippe H. 1981; The genus Clostridium. 1767–1803 In Starr M. P., Stolp H., Triiper H. G., Balows A., Schlegel H. G. (ed.) The prokaryotes Springer-Verlag; Berlin:
    [Google Scholar]
  17. Gottwald M., Hippe H., Gottschalk G. 1984; Formation of n-butanol from D-glucose by strains of the “Clostridium tetanomorphum” group. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 48:573–576
    [Google Scholar]
  18. Holdeman L. V., Cato E. P., Moore W. E. C. (ed.) 1977 Anaerobe laboratory manual, 4th ed.. Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University; Blacksburg:
    [Google Scholar]
  19. Hungate R. E. 1950; The anaerobic mesophilic cellulolytic bacteria. Bacteriol. Rev. 14:1–49
    [Google Scholar]
  20. Huss V. A. R., Festl H., Schleifer K. H. 1983; Studies on the spectrophotometric determination of DNA hybridization from renaturation rates. Syst. Appl. Microbiol. 4:184–192
    [Google Scholar]
  21. Koransky J. R., Allen S. D., Dowell V. R. 1978; Use of ethanol for selective isolation of sporeforming microorganisms. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 35:762–765
    [Google Scholar]
  22. Laemmli U. K. 1970; Cleavage of structural proteins during the assembly of the head of bacteriophage T4. Nature (London) 227:680–685
    [Google Scholar]
  23. Lowry O. H., Rosebrough N. J., Farr A. L., Randall R. J. 1951; Protein measurement with the Folin phenol reagent. J. Biol. Chem. 193:265–275
    [Google Scholar]
  24. Mandel M., Marmur J. 1968; Use of ultraviolet absorbance-temperature for determining the guanine plus cytosine content of DNA. Methods Enzymol. 12:195–206
    [Google Scholar]
  25. Marmur J. 1961; A procedure for the isolation of DNA from microorganisms. J. Mol. Biol. 3:208–218
    [Google Scholar]
  26. Marmur J., Doty P. 1962; Determination of the base composition of DNA from its thermal dénaturation temperature. J. Mol. Biol. 5:109–118
    [Google Scholar]
  27. Möller B., Hippe H., Gottschalk G. 1986; Degradation of various amine compounds by mesophilic clostridia. Arch. Microbiol. 145:85–90
    [Google Scholar]
  28. Moore W. E. C., Hash D. E., Holdeman L. V., Cato E. P. 1980; Polyacrylamide slab gel electrophoresis of soluble proteins for studies of bacterial floras. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 39:900–907
    [Google Scholar]
  29. Nakamura S., Okado I., Abb T., Nishida S. 1979; Taxonomy of Clostridium tetani and related species. J. Gen. Microbiol. 113:29–35
    [Google Scholar]
  30. Neuhoff V., Stamm R., Eibl H. 1985; Clear background and highly sensitive protein staining with Coomassie blue dies in polyacrylamide gels: an uptemative analysis. Electrophoresis 6:427–449
    [Google Scholar]
  31. Reed R. W. 1942; Nitrate, nitrite, and indole reactions of gas gangrene anaerobes. J. Bacteriol. 44:425–431
    [Google Scholar]
  32. Skerman V. B. D., McGowan V., Sneath P. H. A. (ed.) 1980; Approved lists of bacterial names. Int. J. Syst. Bacteriol. 30:225–420
    [Google Scholar]
  33. Smibert R. M., Krieg N. R. 1981; General characterization. 409–443 In Gerhardt P., Murray R. G. E., Costilow R. N., Nester E. W., Wood W. A., Krieg N. R., Phillips G. B. (ed.) Manual of methods for general bacteriology American Society for Microbiology; Washington, D.C.:
    [Google Scholar]
  34. Smith L. D., Hobbs G. 1974; Clostridium Prazmowski, 1880, 23. 551–572 In Buchanan R. E., Gibbons N. E. (ed.) Bergey's manual of determinative bacteriology, 8th ed.. The Williams & Wilkins Co.; Baltimore:
    [Google Scholar]
  35. Takahashi Κ., Tamai K., Nishida S. 1967; Taxonomic studies on Clostridium tetanomorphum. Med. Biol. 75:81–85 (In Japanese.)
    [Google Scholar]
  36. Wachsman J. T., Barker H. A. 1955; The accumulation of formamide during the fermentation of histidine by Clostridium tetanomorphum. J. Bacteriol. 69:83–88
    [Google Scholar]
  37. Weiss N., Schleifer K. H., Kandier O. 1981; The peptidoglycan types of gram-positive anaerobic bacteria and their taxonomic implications. Rev. Inst. Pasteur Lyon 14:3–12
    [Google Scholar]
http://instance.metastore.ingenta.com/content/journal/ijsem/10.1099/00207713-39-2-127
Loading
/content/journal/ijsem/10.1099/00207713-39-2-127
Loading

Data & Media loading...

Most cited this month Most Cited RSS feed

This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Approval was a Success
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error