Species of the differ from species of the and in many respects, including lack of a nutritional requirement for sterol, ability of most species to synthesize saturated fatty acids and polyterpenes from acetate, and several other properties related to lipid metabolism and to the incorporation and location of lipids in the cell membrane. species have also been found to differ from species in possessing a nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide-dependent lactate dehydrogenase that is specifically activated by fructose 1,6-diphosphate and in containing superoxide dismutase, as well as glucose-6-phosphate and 6-phosphogluconate dehydrogenases. In addition, reduced nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide oxidase activity is located in the cell membrane of species and is associated with the soluble cytoplasmic fraction of and species. Finally, significant differences exist between the nucleic acids of the and the . The genome molecular weight for species is about 1.0 × 10, compared with about 5.0 × 10 for species of the . Moreover, a recent comparison of ribosomal ribonucleic acid oligonucleotide catalogs has demonstrated that species are more closely related phylogenetically to two clostridial species than to the and species tested. Because the characteristics of species of the differ in major respects from those of other families of the , we propose elevation of the family to the rank of a new order, . We provide a description of the proposed taxon, the second order of the class .


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