Previously, a group of 40 -like strains that were isolated from water and fish were called group X2. These strains produced acid from L-rhamnose, did not ferment sorbose, cellobiose, melibiose, or raffinose, and rarely fermented sucrose (5% in 48 h. 10% in 7 days). This pattern of reactions separated group X2 strains from , and . Positive reactions for acetoin production (Voges-Proskauer test), ornithine decarbox-ylase, and lack of acid production from melibiose distinguished group X2 strains from both and . Group X2 strains exhibited variable reactions only in tests for citrate utilization, hydrolysis of Tween 80, and acid production from maltose. Genetically, group X2 strains formed a single deoxyribonucleic acid hybridization group with an average level of relatedness of 86% or more (86% as determined by the S1 method at 60°C or by the hydroxyapatite method at 75°C and 92% as determined by the hydroxyapatite method at 60°C). The level of divergence among related sequences in 60°C reactions was 0.5%, as determined by the hydroxyapatite method. The relatedness of group X2 strains to other species was 42 to 73% in 60°C reactions. The divergence in these reactions was 11.0 to 15.5%, and the relatedness to other yersiniae in 75°C reactions was 21 to 38%. Group X2 strains were 11 to 32% related to 67 species of the that belonged to genera other than . On the basis of these biochemical and genetic data, we believe that group X2 represents a single new species in the genus . The name sp. nov. is proposed for this species. The type strain of is strain CNY 6005 (= CDC 669-83 = ATCC 35236).


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