Hybrids between C-labeled ribosomal ribonucleic acid (rRNA) from either subsp. NCIB 9013, Acetobacter aceti subsp. NCIB 8621t, or subsp. ATCC 29191 and deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) from acetic acid bacteria and representative strains of possibly related and other gram-negative bacteria were prepared. Each hybrid was described by two parameters: , the temperature at which 50% of the hybrid was denatured, and the percentage of rRNA. binding, the amount of C-labeled rRNA (in micrograms) duplexed under stringent conditions per 100 μg of filter-fixed homologous or heterologous DNA. Each taxon occupied a definite area on the rRNA similarity maps. Parameters of hybrids formed with rRNA from subsp. NCIB 9013 showed that the acetic acid bacteria consist of two separate but closely related groups corresponding to the genera When compared with rRNA from subsp. NCIB 8621t, both genera were indistinguishable, showing that there were many strains of. whose rRNA cistrons are as different from the rRNA as from rRNA. The rRNA cistrons of were more heterogeneous than these of The great similarities among the 's of the heterologous hybrids and among the numerous phenotypic features stress that both genera are more closely related to each other than to any other genus. The parameters of the DNA:rRNA hybrids located the acetic acid bacteria as a separate branch in an rRNA superfamily consisting of , some Spirillum species, and Parameters of hybrids formed with rRNA from subsp. ATCC 29191 showed that the genus forms a separate branch in the same rRNA superfamily. We detected a number of misnamed organisms. aceti subsp. NCIB 4112, aceti subsp. NCIB 6426, and lermae NRRL B-1810 belong in the genus IFO 3261, IAM 1814, sp. strains A4.1 and M28, NCPPB 461 and 462, and NCPPB 463 are all regular members of Our evidence is against the maintenance of “intermediate” strains of acetic acid bacteria. NCIB 9505 and IAM 1834 and IAM 1835 and IAM 1836 are genetically regular members of the genus IFO 3246 is a IFO 3249, 3247, 13330, and 13333 are not acetic acid bacteria at all. We propose to unite and in the family The ranges of the moles percent guanine plus cytosine of the DNAs have been determined for the different taxa in both genera.


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