1887

Abstract

In 1971, Strength and Krieg reported the isolation of a gram-negative freshwater rod which exhibited bipolar flagellar fascicles clearly visible by dark-field microscopy. The flagellar fascicles exhibited helical wave propagation, basal bending, and an ability to coil up like springs. Despite the flagellar activity, the cells were apparently unable to swim freely. Such organisms appeared to be similar morphologically to an organism previously described by Houwink in 1953 and Jarosch in 1969. The present report describes a reliable isolation method for such organisms based on the use of -proline and semisolid agar. Upon isolation, the organisms grew in flocs, from which a highly viscous matrix could be separated by high-speed centrifugation. After many transfers, the growth gradually became homogeneous and turbid, and the viscous substance could no longer be demonstrated. Under certain conditions of growth, steady straight-line motility could be observed and photographed within viscous flocs. Straight-line, free-swimming motility occurred in viscous suspensions of cells prepared by homogenization of flocs. In 8- to 12-h-old cultures in the nonviscous homogeneous condition, some cells could swim slowly in irregular, circular paths; other could move about on surfaces. When the viscosity of the medium was increased, nearly every cell could swim freely and steadily in straight paths. A viscosity of 200 centipoise was optimal for strain XI, whereas 10 centipoise was optimal for strains X and XII. These results suggest that the organisms may be highly adapted to life within viscous flocs. The organism exhibited nitrogenase activity when tested by methods developed by Döbereiner and her colleagues for “ also was found to possess nitrogenase activity. Investigation of the physiology and deoxyribonucleic acid base composition of strains X, XI, and XII has indicated that even though the organisms are straight rods, they are probably members of the genus Important taxonomic considerations include: Coccoid body or “microcyst” formation, possession of a “polar membrane” similar to that occurring in certain spirilla, bipolar tufts of flagella, a strictly respiratory metabolism, inability to attack carbohydrates, positive catalase and oxidase reactions, and a deoxyribonucleic acid base composition of 62 to 65 mol% guanine plus cytosine. The organisms were assigned to a new species, , and the type strain was deposited with the American Type Culture Collection under the number 27740.

Loading

Article metrics loading...

/content/journal/ijsem/10.1099/00207713-26-2-253
1976-04-01
2022-08-14
Loading full text...

Full text loading...

/deliver/fulltext/ijsem/26/2/ijs-26-2-253.html?itemId=/content/journal/ijsem/10.1099/00207713-26-2-253&mimeType=html&fmt=ahah

References

  1. Baillie A., Hodgkiss W., Norris J. R. 1962; Flagellation of Azotobacter as demonstrated by electron microscopy. J. Appl. Bacteriol 25:116–119
    [Google Scholar]
  2. Baker D. A., Park R. W. A. 1975; Changes in morphology and cell wall structure that occur during growth of Vibrio sp. NCTC 4716 in batch culture. J. Gen. Microbiol 86:12–28
    [Google Scholar]
  3. Becking J. H. 1963; Fixation of molecular nitrogen by an aerobic Vibrio or Spirillum. Antonie van Leeu-wenhoek J. Microbiol. Serol 29326
    [Google Scholar]
  4. Beijerinck M. W. 1922; Azotobacter chroococcum als indikator van de vruchtbaarheid van den grond. K. Ned. Akad. Wet., Versl. Gewone Vergad. Afd. Na-twurkd 30:431–438
    [Google Scholar]
  5. Beijerinck M. W. 1925; Uber ein Spirillum, welches freien Stickstoff binden kann? Zentralbl. Bakteriol. Parasitenk. Infektionskr. Abt. II 63:353–359
    [Google Scholar]
  6. Crabtree K., McCoy E. 1974 Genus Zoogloea,. 249–250 In Buchanan R. E., Gibbons N. E. Bergey’s manual of determinative bacteriology, 8th. The Williams and Wilkins Co.; Baltimore:
    [Google Scholar]
  7. Dalton H. 1974; Fixation of dinitrogen by free-living microorganisms. CRC Crit. Rev. Microbiol 3183220
    [Google Scholar]
  8. Friedman B. A., Pfister P. R. Dugan. R. M., Remsen C. C. 1969; Structure of exocellular polymers and their relationship to bacterial flocculation. J. Bacteriol 98:1328–1344
    [Google Scholar]
  9. Hickman D. D., Frenkel A. W. 1965; Observations on the structure of Rhodospirillum molischianum. J. Cell Biol 25:261–278
    [Google Scholar]
  10. Hickman D. D., Frenkel A. W. 1965; Observa lions on the structure of Rhodospirillum rubrum. J. Cell Biol 25:279–291
    [Google Scholar]
  11. Houwink A. L. 1953; A macromolecular mono-layer in the cell wall of Spirillum spec. Biochim. Biophys. Acta 10:360–366
    [Google Scholar]
  12. Hylemon P. B., Wells J. S., , Jr. Krieg N. R., Jannasch H. W. 1973; The genus Spirillum: a taxonomic study. Int. J. Syst. Bacteriol 23:340–380
    [Google Scholar]
  13. Jarosch R. 1969; Lebenbeobachtungen an Bakteriengeisseln und ihre mögliche Bedeutung für die Interpretation der Dynamik endoplasmatischer Fibrillen. Mikroskopie 25:186–196
    [Google Scholar]
  14. Johnstone D. B. 1974 Genus Azomonas,. 255–256 In Buchanan R. E., Gibbons N. E. Bergey’s manual of determinative bacteriology, 8th. The Williams and Wilkins Co.; Baltimore:
    [Google Scholar]
  15. Kay D. H. 1965 Techniques for electron microscopy, 2nd.176 F. A. Davis Co.; Philadelphia:
    [Google Scholar]
  16. Keeler R. F., Ritchie A. E., Bryner J. H., Elmore Jane. 1966; The preparation and characterization of cell walls and the preparation of flagella of Vibrio fetus. J. Gen. Microbiol 43:439–462
    [Google Scholar]
  17. Kellenberger E., Ryter A., Sechaud J. 1958; Electron microscope study of DNA-containing plasma. II. Vegetative and mature phase DNA as compared with normal bacterial nucleoids in different physiological states. J. Biophys. Biochem. Cytol 4:671–676
    [Google Scholar]
  18. Kurz W. G. W., LaRue T. A. 1975; Nitrogenase activity in rhizobia in absence of plant host. Nature (London) 256:407–409
    [Google Scholar]
  19. Law J. H., Slepecky R. A. 1961; Assay of poly-α-hydroxybutyric acid. J. Bacteriol 82:33–36
    [Google Scholar]
  20. Murray R. G. E., Birch-Andersen A. 1963; Specialized structure in the region of the flagella tuft in Spirillum serpens. Can. J. Microbiol 9:393–401
    [Google Scholar]
  21. Ogg J. E. 1962; Studies on the coccoid form of ovine Vibrio fetus. I. Cultural and serologic investigations. Am. J. Vet. Res 23:354–358
    [Google Scholar]
  22. Postgate J. R. 1972 The acetylene reduction test for nitrogen fixation343–356 In Norris J. R., Ribbins D. W. Methods in microbiology 6B: Academic Press Inc.; New York:
    [Google Scholar]
  23. Reynolds E. S. 1963; The use of lead citrate at high pH as an electron opaque stain in electron microscopy. J. Cell Biol 17:208–212
    [Google Scholar]
  24. Ritchie A. E., Keeler R. F., Bryner J. H. 1966; Anatomical features of Vibrio fetus: electron microscope survey. J. Gen. Microbiol 43:427–438
    [Google Scholar]
  25. Rittenberg B. T., Rittenberg S. C. 1962; The growth of Spirillum volutans Ehrenberg in mixed and pure cultures. Arch. Mikrobiol 43:138–153
    [Google Scholar]
  26. Schneider W. R., Doetsch R. N. 1974; Effect of viscosity on bacterial motility. J. Bacteriol 117696701
    [Google Scholar]
  27. Shewan J. M., Véron M. 1974 Genus Vibrio,. 340–345 In Buchanan R. E., Gibbons N. E. Bergey’s manual of determinative bacteriology, 8th. The Williams and Wilkins Co.; Baltimore:
    [Google Scholar]
  28. Smibert R. M. 1974 Genus Campylobacter,. 207–212 In Buchanan R. E., Gibbons N. E. Bergey’s manual of determinative bacteriology, 8th. The Williams and Wilkins Co.; Baltimore:
    [Google Scholar]
  29. Stempak J. G., Ward R. T. 1964; An improved staining method for electron microscopy. J. Cell Biol 22:679–701
    [Google Scholar]
  30. Strength W. J., Krieg N. R. 1971; Flagellar activity in an aquatic bacterium. Can. J. Microbiol 17:1133–1137
    [Google Scholar]
  31. Terasaki Y. 1972; Studies on the genus Spirillum Ehrenberg. I. Morphological, physiological, and biochemical characteristics of water spirilla. Bull. Suzugamine Women’s Coll. Nat. Sci 16:1–146
    [Google Scholar]
  32. Vaituzis A., Doetsch R. N. 1969; Motility tracks: technique for quantitative study of bacterial movement. Appl. Microbiol 17:584–588
    [Google Scholar]
  33. von Bülow J. F. W., Döbereiner J. 1975; Potential for nitrogen fixation in maize genotypes in Brazil. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U. S. A 72:2389–2393
    [Google Scholar]
  34. Williams M. A. 1959; Some problems in the identification and classification of Spirillum. Int. Bull. Bacteriol. Nomencl. Taxon 9:35–55
    [Google Scholar]
http://instance.metastore.ingenta.com/content/journal/ijsem/10.1099/00207713-26-2-253
Loading
/content/journal/ijsem/10.1099/00207713-26-2-253
Loading

Data & Media loading...

Most cited this month Most Cited RSS feed

This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Approval was a Success
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error