1887

Abstract

ABSTRACT

Detailed knowledge of bacterial cell wall peptidoglycan structures has expanded rapidly in the past few years, and very definite patterns have emerged which can be attributed to common biosynthetic pathways, and, more speculatively, to a common structural function. The glycan is β - 1, 4 linked and is therefore a substituted form of chitin, probably retaining its linear conformation. The peptide may be more flexible, and varied in its cross-linking, but all contain a sequence derived from a probable common precursor, UDP- N- acetylmuramy 1-(A)- D - glu -(B)- D -ala- D - ala, when (A) and (B) are amino acids with the carboxy 1 and α-amino groups of a center with L - configuration in the main chain. The conformation of this sequence is discussed.

Loading

Article metrics loading...

/content/journal/ijsem/10.1099/00207713-20-4-361
1970-10-01
2022-12-02
Loading full text...

Full text loading...

/deliver/fulltext/ijsem/20/4/ijs-20-4-361.html?itemId=/content/journal/ijsem/10.1099/00207713-20-4-361&mimeType=html&fmt=ahah

References

  1. Araki V., Shimada A. T., Ito E. 1966; Effect of penicillin on cell wall mucopeptide synthesis in an Escherichia coli particulate system. . Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 23:518
    [Google Scholar]
  2. Archibald A. R., Baddiley, J., Button D. 1968; The glycerol teichoic acid of walls of Staphylococcus lactis I3.. Biochem. J. 110:543.
    [Google Scholar]
  3. Browder H. P., Zygmunt, W. A., Young, J. R., Tavormina P. A. 1965; Lysostaphin: Mechanism in action. Biochem.. Biophys. Res. Commun. 19:383
    [Google Scholar]
  4. Button D., Archibald, A. R., Baddiley J. 1966; The linkage between teichoic acid and glucosaminopeptide in the walls of a strain of Staphylococcus lactis.. Biochem. J. 99:11c.
    [Google Scholar]
  5. Campbell J. J., Leyh-Bouille, M., Ghuysen J. M. 1969; Characterisation of the Micrococcus lysodeikticus type of peptidoglycan in walls of other Micrococcaceae.. Biochemistry 8:193
    [Google Scholar]
  6. Carlström D. 1957; The crystal structure of α-chitin (poly-N-acetylD-glucosamine).. J. Biophys. Biochem. Cytol. 3:669
    [Google Scholar]
  7. Cummins C. S., Harris H. 1956; The chemical composition of the cell wall in some Gram-positive bacteria and its possible value as a taxonomic character.. J. Gen. Microbiol. 14:583
    [Google Scholar]
  8. Egan A. F. 1969; Enzymatic splitting of D-alanyl-D-alanine from UDPacetyl-muramyl-pentapeptide catalyzed by a soluble enzyme from Bacillus subtilis.. Fed. Proc. 28:657
    [Google Scholar]
  9. Ghuysen J. M. 1968; Use of bacteriolytic enzymes in determination of wall structure and their role in cell metabolism.. Bacteriol. Rev. 32:425.
    [Google Scholar]
  10. Ghuysen J. M., Bricas, E., Lache, M., Leyh-Bouille M. 1968; Structure of the cell walls of Micrococcus lysodeikticus. III. Isolation of a new peptide dimer, Nα-[L-alanyl-γ-(α - D-glutamyl-glycine)]-L-lysyl-Dalanyl-Nα - [L- alanyl-γ - (α - D-glutamyl-glycine)] - L-lysyl- D- alanine. . Biochemistry 7:1450–1460
    [Google Scholar]
  11. Ghuysen J. M., Bricas, E., Lache, M., Leyh-Bouille M., Lehy-Bouille M., Lache M., Shockman. G. D. 1967.; The peptide Nα-(L-alanyl-D-isoglutaminyl-Nε -(D-isoasparaginyl) - Llysyl-D-alanine and the disaccharide N-acetylglucosaminyl-β- 1, 4-Nacetylmuramic acid in cell wall peptidoglycan of Streptococcus faecalis strain ATCC 9790.. Biochemistry 6:2607–2619
    [Google Scholar]
  12. Ghuysen J. M., Bricas, E., Lache, M., Leyh-Bouille M., Lehy-Bouille M., Lache M., Shockman. G. D., Strominger J. L. 1963; Structure of the cell wall of Staphylococcus aureus, strain Copenhagen. II. Separation and structure of disaccharides.. Biochemistry 2:1119–1125
    [Google Scholar]
  13. Guinand M., Ghuysen, J. M., Schleifer, K. H., Kandler O. 1969; The peptidoglycan in walls of Butyribacterium rettgeri.. Biochemistry 8:200
    [Google Scholar]
  14. Higashi Y., Strominger, J. L., Sweeley C. C. 1967; Structure of a lipid intermediate in cell wall peptidoglycan synthesis: a derivative of a C55 isoprenoid alcohol.. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U. S.: 57:1878–1884
    [Google Scholar]
  15. Hoare D. S., Work E. 1957; The stereoisomers of α-ε-diaminopimelic acid. 2. Their distribution in the bacterial order Actinomycetales and in certain Eubacteriales.. Biochem. J. 65:441–447
    [Google Scholar]
  16. Hungerer K. D., Fleck, J., Tipper D. J. 1969; Structure of the cell wall peptidoglycan of Lactobacillus casei RO9 4.. Biochemistry (in press)
    [Google Scholar]
  17. Hungerer K. D., Tipper D. J. 1969; Cell wall polymers of Bacillus sphaericus 9602. I. Structure of the vegetative cell wall peptidoglycan.. Biochemistry (in press)
    [Google Scholar]
  18. Izaki K., Matsuhashi, M., Strominger J. L. 1966; Glycopeptide transpeptidase and D-alanine carboxypeptidase: penicillin sensitive enzymatic reactions.. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U. S.: 55:656–663
    [Google Scholar]
  19. Izaki K., Strominger J. L. 1968; Biosynthesis of the peptidoglycan of bacterial cell walls. XIV. Purification and properties of two Dalanine carboxypeptidases from E. coli.. J. Biol. Chem. 243:3193
    [Google Scholar]
  20. Jeanloz R. W., Sharon, N., Flowers H. M. 1963; The chemical structure of a disaccharide isolated from Micrococcus lysodeikticus cell wall. Biochem.. Biophys. Res. Commun. 13:20–25
    [Google Scholar]
  21. Kato K., Strominger, J. L., Kotani S. 1968; Structure of the cell wall of Corynebacterium diphtheriae. I. Mechanism of hydrolysis by the L-3 enzyme and the structure of peptide.. Biochemistry 7:2762–2773
    [Google Scholar]
  22. Katz W., Matsuhashi, M., Dietrich, C. P., Strominger J. L. 1967; Biosynthesis of the peptidoglycans of bacterial cell walls. IV. Incorporation of glycine in Micrococcus lysodeikticus.. J. Biol. Chem. 242:3207–3217
    [Google Scholar]
  23. Knox K. W., Hall E. A. 1965; The linkage between the polysaccharide and mucopeptide components of the cell wall of Lactobacillus casei.. Biochem. J. 96:302–309
    [Google Scholar]
  24. Knox K. W., Holmwood K. J. 1968; Structure of the cell wall of lactobacilli. Role of muramic acid phosphate in Lactobacillus fermenti.. Biochem. J. 108:363
    [Google Scholar]
  25. Krulwich T. A., Ensign, J. C., Tipper, D. J., Strominger J. L. 1967; Sphere-rod morphogenesis in Arthrobacter crystallopoietes. I. Cell wall composition and polysaccharides of the peptidoglycan.. J. Bact. 94:734–740
    [Google Scholar]
  26. Krulwich T. A., Ensign, J. C., Tipper, D. J., Strominger J. L. 1967; Sphere-rod morphogenesis in Arthrobacter crystallopoietes. II. Peptides of the cell wall peptidoglycan.. J. Bact. 94:741–750
    [Google Scholar]
  27. Lardy H. A., Graven, S. N., Estrada-O. S. 1967; Specific induction and inhibition of cation and anion transport in mitochondria.. Fed. Proc. 26:1355
    [Google Scholar]
  28. Leyh-Bouille M., Ghuysen, J. M., Tipper, D. J., Strominger J. L. 1966; Structure of the cell wall of Micrococcus lysodeikticus. I. Study of the structure of the glycan.. Biochemistry 5:3079–3090
    [Google Scholar]
  29. Martin H. H. 1966; Biochemistry of bacterial cell walls.. Ann. Rev. Biochem. 35(2):457–483.
    [Google Scholar]
  30. Martin H. H. 1967 Murein structure in cell walls of normal bacteria and L-forms of Proteus mirabilis and the site of action of penicillin. Folia Microbiol. (Prague) 12:234–239
    [Google Scholar]
  31. Matsuhashi M., Dietrich, C. P., Strominger J. L. 1967; The role of soluble RNA and of lipid intermediates in glycine incorporation in Staphylococcus aureus.. J. Biol. Chem. 242:3191
    [Google Scholar]
  32. Muñoz E., Ghuysen, J. M., Heymann H. 1967; Cell walls of Streptococcus pyogenes Type 14. C polysaccharide-peptidoglycan and G polysaccharide-peptidoglycan complexes.. Biochemistry 6:35593–670
    [Google Scholar]
  33. Perkins H. R. 1965; 2, 6-Diamino-3-hydroxypimelic acid in microbial cell wall mucopeptide.. Nature 208:872–873
    [Google Scholar]
  34. Perkins H. R. 1967; The use of photolysis of dinitrophenyl-peptides in structural studies on the cell-wall mucopeptide of Corynebacterium poinsettiae.. Biochem. J. 102:29c–32c.
    [Google Scholar]
  35. Perkins H. R. 1968; Cell-wall mucopeptide of Corynebacterium insidiosum and C. sepedonicum.. Biochem. J.47p.
    [Google Scholar]
  36. Rudall K. M. 1967 Conformation in Chitin-Protein Complexes, p. 751 In G. N. Ramachandran (ed.), Conformation of Biopolymers Vol. 2.: Academic Press, Inc.,; New York.:
  37. Schleifer K. H., Handler O. 1967; Micrococcus lysodeikticus: a new type of cross-linkage of the murein.. Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 28:965
    [Google Scholar]
  38. Schleifer K. H., Plapp R., Handler O. 1967; Identification of threo-3hydroxy-glutamic acid in the cell wall of Microbacterium lacticum. Biochem.. Biophys. Res. Commun. 28:566
    [Google Scholar]
  39. Strominger J. L., Izaki, K., Matsuhashi, M., Tipper D. J. 1967; Peptidoglycan transpeptidase and D-alanine carboxypeptidase: penicillin-sensitive enzymatic reactions.. Fed. Proc. 26:9
    [Google Scholar]
  40. Staudenbauer W. 1968; D-aspartic acid incorporation into interpeptide bridges in bacterial cell wall.. Fed. Proc. 27:294
    [Google Scholar]
  41. Tipper D. J. 1968; Alkali-catalyzed elimination of D-lactic acid from muramic acid and its derivatives and the determination of muramic acid.. Biochemistry 7:1441
    [Google Scholar]
  42. Tipper D. J. 1969; Mechanism of autolysis of isolated cell walls of Staphylococcus aureus strain Copenhagen.. J. Bact. 97:837
    [Google Scholar]
  43. Tipper D. J. 1969; Structures of the cell wall peptidoglycans of Staphylococcus epidermidis Texas 26 and Staphylococcus aureus Copenhagen. II. Structure of neutral and basic peptides from hydrolysis with the myxobacter AL-1 peptidase.. Biochemistry
    [Google Scholar]
  44. Tipper D. J., Berman M. F. 1969; Structures of the cell wall peptidoglycans of Staphylococcus epidermidis Texas 26. I. Chain length and average sequence of cross-bridge peptides.. Biochemistry
    [Google Scholar]
  45. Tipper D. J., Ghuysen J. M., Strominger J. L. 1965; Structure of the cell wall of Staphylococcus aureus, strain Copenhagen. III. Further studies of the disaccharides.. Biochemistry 4:468
    [Google Scholar]
  46. Tipper D. J., Katz, W., Strominger, J. L., Ghuysen J. M. 1967; Substituents on the α-carboxyl group of D-glutamic acid in the peptidoglycan of several bacterial cell walls.. Biochemistry 6:921
    [Google Scholar]
  47. Tipper D. J., Strominger J. L. 1965; Mechanism of action of penicillins: a proposal based on their structural similarity to acyl-D-alanyl-Dalanine. . Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U. S.: 54:1133
    [Google Scholar]
  48. Tipper D. J., Strominger J. L. 1966; Isolation of 4-O-β-N-acetylmuramyl-N-acetylglucosamine and 4-O-β-N, 6-O-diacetylmuramyl-N-acetylglucosamine and the structure of the cell wall polysaccharide of Staphylococcus aureus. . Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 22:48
    [Google Scholar]
  49. Tipper D. J., Strominger J. L. 1968; Biosynthesis of the peptidoglycan of bacterial cell walls. XII. Inhibition of cross-linkage by penicillins and cephalosporins: studies in Staphylococcus aureus in vivo.. J. Biol. Chem. 243:3169
    [Google Scholar]
  50. Tipper D. J., Strominger J. L., Ensign J. C. 1967; Structure of the cell wall of Staphylococcus aureus, strain Copenhagen. VII. Mode of action of the bacteriolytic peptidase from Myxobacter and the isolation of intact cell wall polysaccharides.. Biochemistry 6:906
    [Google Scholar]
  51. van der Veen J. M. 1963; An NMR study of the glycoside link in glycosides of glucose and galactose.. J. Org. Chem. 564.
    [Google Scholar]
  52. van Heijenoort J., Elbaz, L., Dezelee, P., Petit, J. F., Bricas, E., Ghuysen J. M. 1969; Structure of the meso-Diaminopimelic acid containing peptidoglycans in Escherichia coli B and Bacillus megaterium KM.. Biochemistry 8:207
    [Google Scholar]
  53. Warth A. W. 1968 Structure of the peptidoglycans from spores and vegetative cells of Bacillus subtilis. Ph. D. thesis, University of Wisconsin, Madison.
  54. Weidel W., Pelzer H. 1964; Bag shaped macromolecules: anew outlook on bacterial cell walls.. Adv. Enzymol. 26:193
    [Google Scholar]
  55. Wise E. M., Park J. T. 1965; Penicillin: Its basic site of action as an inhibitor of a peptide cross-linking reaction in cell wall mucopeptide synthesis.. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U. S.: 54:75
    [Google Scholar]
http://instance.metastore.ingenta.com/content/journal/ijsem/10.1099/00207713-20-4-361
Loading
/content/journal/ijsem/10.1099/00207713-20-4-361
Loading

Data & Media loading...

Most cited this month Most Cited RSS feed

This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Approval was a Success
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error