1887

Abstract

serovar harbours, in addition to several circular plasmids, a small linear molecule of about 15 kb. Sequence analysis of this molecule, named pGIL01, showed the presence of at least 30 ORFs, five of which displayed similarity with proteins involved in phage systems: a B-type family DNA polymerase, a LexA-like repressor, two potential muramidases and a DNA-packaging protein (distantly related to the P9 protein of the tectiviral phage PRD1). Experimental evidence confirmed that pGIL01 indeed corresponds to the linear prophage of a temperate phage. This bacteriophage, named GIL01, produces small turbid plaques and is sensitive to organic solvents, which suggests the presence of lipid components in its capsid. Experiments using proteases and exonucleases also revealed that proteins are linked to the genomes of both pGIL01 prophage and GIL01 phage at their 5′ extremities. Altogether, these features are reminiscent of those of phages found in the family, and more specifically of those of PRD1, a broad-host-range phage of Gram-negative bacteria. Dot-blot hybridization, PFGE, PCR and RFLP analyses also showed the presence of pGIL01 variants in the group.

Keyword(s): sv., serovar
Loading

Article metrics loading...

/content/journal/micro/10.1099/mic.0.26307-0
2003-08-01
2020-08-11
Loading full text...

Full text loading...

/deliver/fulltext/micro/149/8/mic1492083.html?itemId=/content/journal/micro/10.1099/mic.0.26307-0&mimeType=html&fmt=ahah

References

  1. Ackermann H. W., Smirnoff W. A.. 1978; Study of lysogeny in Bacillus thuringiensis and B. cereus . Can J Microbiol24:818–826 in French
    [Google Scholar]
  2. Ackermann H. W., Roy R., Martin M., Murthy M. R., Smirnoff W. A.. 1978; Partial characterization of a cubic Bacillus phage. Can J Microbiol24:986–993
    [Google Scholar]
  3. Andrup L., Damgaard J., Wassermann K.. 1993; Mobilization of small plasmids in Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. israelensis is accompanied by specific aggregation. J Bacteriol175:6530–6536
    [Google Scholar]
  4. Andrup L., Jensen G. B., Wilcks A., Smidt L., Hoflack L., Mahillon J.. 2003; The patchwork nature of rolling-circle plasmids: comparison of six plasmids from two distinct Bacillus thuringiensis serotypes. Plasmid 49:205–232
    [Google Scholar]
  5. Ash C., Farrow J. A. E., Dorsch M., Stackebrandt E., Collins M. D.. 1991; Comparative analysis of Bacillus anthracis , Bacillus cereus , and related species on the basis of reverse transcriptase sequencing of 16S rRNA. Int J Syst Bacteriol41:343–346
    [Google Scholar]
  6. Bamford D., Mindich L.. 1982; Structure of the lipid-containing bacteriophage PRD1: disruption of wild-type and nonsense mutant phage particles with guanidine hydrochloride. J Virol44:1031–1038
    [Google Scholar]
  7. Bamford D., McGraw T., MacKenzie G., Mindich L.. 1983; Identification of a protein bound to the termini of bacteriophage PRD1 DNA. J Virol47:311–316
    [Google Scholar]
  8. Bamford D. H., Rouhiainen L., Takkinen K., Soderlund H.. 1981; Comparison of the lipid-containing bacteriophages PRD1, PR3, PR4, PR5 and L17. J Gen Virol57:365–373
    [Google Scholar]
  9. Bamford D. H., Caldentey J., Bamford J. K.. 1995; Bacteriophage PRD1: a broad host range DSDNA tectivirus with an internal membrane. Adv Virus Res45:281–319
    [Google Scholar]
  10. Bamford J. K., Hänninen A. L., Pakula T. M., Ojala P. M., Kalkkinen N., Frilander M., Bamford D. H.. 1991; Genome organization of membrane-containing bacteriophage PRD1. Virology183:658–676
    [Google Scholar]
  11. Bell J. A., Friedman S. B.. 1994; Genetic structure and diversity within local populations of Bacillus mycoides . Evolution48:1698–1714
    [Google Scholar]
  12. Bernhardt T. G., Wang I. N., Struck D. K., Young R.. 2001; A protein antibiotic in the phage Qβ virion: diversity in lysis targets. Science292:2326–2329
    [Google Scholar]
  13. Berry C., O'Neil S., Ben-Dov E.. 7 other authors 2002; Complete sequence and organization of pBtoxis, the toxin-coding plasmid of Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. israelensis . Appl Environ Microbiol68:5082–5095
    [Google Scholar]
  14. Bradley D. E., Rutherford E. L.. 1975; Basic characterization of a lipid-containing bacteriophage specific for plasmids of the P, N, and W compatibility groups. Can J Microbiol21:152–163
    [Google Scholar]
  15. Buist G., Kok J., Leenhouts K. J., Dabrowska M., Venema G., Haandrikman A. J.. 1995; Molecular cloning and nucleotide sequence of the gene encoding the major peptidoglycan hydrolase of Lactococcus lactis , a muramidase needed for cell separation. J Bacteriol177:1554–1563
    [Google Scholar]
  16. Caldentey J., Hänninen A. L., Bamford D. H.. 1994; Gene XV of bacteriophage PRD1 encodes a lytic enzyme with muramidase activity. Eur J Biochem225:341–346
    [Google Scholar]
  17. Carlson C. R., Grønstad A., Kolstø A. B.. 1992; Physical maps of the genomes of three Bacillus cereus strains. J Bacteriol174:3750–3756
    [Google Scholar]
  18. Challberg M. D., Desiderio S. V., Kelly T. J. Jr. 1980; Adenovirus DNA replication in vitro: characterization of a protein covalently linked to nascent DNA strands. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A77:5105–5109
    [Google Scholar]
  19. Colasito D. J., Rogoff M. H.. 1969a; Characterization of temperate bacteriophages of Bacillus thuringiensis . J Gen Virol5:275–281
    [Google Scholar]
  20. Colasito D. J., Rogoff M. H.. 1969b; Characterization of lytic bacteriophages of Bacillus thuringiensis . J Gen Virol5:267–274
    [Google Scholar]
  21. Davis T. N., Muller E. D., Cronan J. E. Jr. 1982; The virion of the lipid-containing bacteriophage PR4. Virology120:287–306
    [Google Scholar]
  22. de Jong R. N., van der Vliet P. C.. 1999; Mechanism of DNA replication in eukaryotic cells: cellular host factors stimulating adenovirus DNA replication. Gene236:1–12
    [Google Scholar]
  23. Dubnau D., Lovett M. J.. 2002; Transformation and recombination. In Bacillus subtilis and its Closest Relatives: from Genes to Cells pp453–471 Edited by Sonenshein A. L., Hoch J. A., Losick R. Washington, DC: American Society for Microbiology;
  24. Glare T. R., O'Callaghan M.. 2000; Bacillus thuringiensis: Biology. Ecology and Safety Chichester: Wiley;
    [Google Scholar]
  25. González J. M. Jr, Carlton B. C.. 1984; A large transmissible plasmid is required for crystal toxin production in Bacillus thuringiensis variety israelensis . Plasmid11:28–38
    [Google Scholar]
  26. Grahn A. M., Haase J., Bamford D. H., Lanka E.. 2000; Components of the RP4 conjugative transfer apparatus form an envelope structure bridging inner and outer membranes of donor cells: implications for related macromolecule transport systems. J Bacteriol182:1564–1574
    [Google Scholar]
  27. Grahn A. M., Daugelavicius R., Bamford D. H.. 2002; Sequential model of phage PRD1 DNA delivery: active involvement of the viral membrane. Mol Microbiol46:1199–1209
    [Google Scholar]
  28. Granum P. E., Lund T.. 1997; Bacillus cereus and its food poisoning toxins. FEMS Microbiol Lett157:223–228
    [Google Scholar]
  29. Heidrich C., Templin M. F., Ursinus A., Merdanovic M., Berger J., Schwarz H., de Pedro M. A., Höltje J. V.. 2001; Involvement of N -acetylmuramyl-l-alanine amidases in cell separation and antibiotic-induced autolysis of Escherichia coli . Mol Microbiol41:167–178
    [Google Scholar]
  30. Helgason E., Økstad O. A., Caugant D. A., Johansen H. A., Fouet A., Mock M., Hegna I., Kolstø A. B.. 2000; Bacillus anthracis , Bacillus cereus , and Bacillus thuringiensis – one species on the basis of genetic evidence. Appl Environ Microbiol66:2627–2630
    [Google Scholar]
  31. Jensen G. B., Wilcks A., Petersen S. S., Damgaard J., Baum J. A., Andrup L.. 1995; The genetic basis of the aggregation system in Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. israelensis is located on the large conjugative plasmid pXO16. J Bacteriol177:2914–2917
    [Google Scholar]
  32. Jensen G. B., Andrup L., Wilcks A., Smidt L., Poulsen O. M.. 1996; The aggregation-mediated conjugation system of Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. israelensis : host range and kinetics of transfer. Curr Microbiol33:228–236
    [Google Scholar]
  33. Kanda K., Kitajima Y., Moriyama Y., Kato F., Murata A.. 1998; Association of plasmid integrative J7W-1 prophage with Bacillus thuringiensis strains. Acta Virol42:315–318
    [Google Scholar]
  34. Lechner S., Mayr R., Francis K. P., Prüß B. M., Kaplan T., Wießner-Gunkel E., Stewart G. S. A. B., Scherer S.. 1998; Bacillus weihenstephanensis sp. nov. is a new psychrotolerant species of the Bacillus cereus group. Int J Syst Bacteriol48:1373–1382
    [Google Scholar]
  35. Léonard C., Zekri O., Mahillon J.. 1998; Integrated physical and genetic mapping of Bacillus cereus and other gram-positive bacteria based on IS 231A transposition vectors. Infect Immun66:2163–2169
    [Google Scholar]
  36. Madsen S. M., Andrup L., Boe L.. 1993; Fine mapping and DNA sequence of replication functions of Bacillus thuringiensis plasmid pTX14-3. Plasmid30:119–130
    [Google Scholar]
  37. Meijer W. J., Horcajadas J. A., Salas M.. 2001; Phi29 family of phages. Microbiol Mol Biol Rev65:261–287
    [Google Scholar]
  38. Mindich L., Bamford D., McGraw T., Mackenzie G.. 1982; Assembly of bacteriophage PRD1: particle formation with wild-type and mutant viruses. J Virol44:1021–1030
    [Google Scholar]
  39. Nagy E.. 1974; A highly specific phage attacking Bacillus anthracis strain Sterne. Acta Microbiol Acad Sci Hung21:257–263
    [Google Scholar]
  40. Nakamura L. K.. 1998; Bacillus pseudomycoides sp. nov. Int J Syst Bacteriol48:1031–1035
    [Google Scholar]
  41. Polo S., Guerini O., Sosio M., Dehò G.. 1998; Identification of two linear plasmids in the actinomycete Planobispora rosea . Microbiology144:2819–2825
    [Google Scholar]
  42. Rosado A., Seldin L.. 1993; Isolation and partial characterization of a new linear DNA plasmid isolated from Bacillus polymyxa SCE2. J Gen Microbiol139:1277–1282
    [Google Scholar]
  43. Rybchin V. N., Svarchevsky A. N.. 1999; The plasmid prophage N15: a linear DNA with covalently closed ends. Mol Microbiol33:895–903
    [Google Scholar]
  44. Rydman P. S., Bamford D. H.. 2002; The lytic enzyme of bacteriophage PRD1 is associated with the viral membrane. J Bacteriol184:104–110
    [Google Scholar]
  45. Salas M.. 1991; Protein-priming of DNA replication. Annu Rev Biochem60:39–71
    [Google Scholar]
  46. Sambrook J., Russell D.. 2001; Molecular Cloning: a Laboratory Manual , 3rd edn. Cold Spring Harbor, NY: Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory;
  47. Santos M. A.. 1991; An improved method for the small scale preparation of bacteriophage DNA based on phage precipitation by zinc chloride. Nucleic Acids Res19:5442
    [Google Scholar]
  48. Smith N. R., Gibson T., Gordon R. E., Sneath P. H. A.. 1964; Type cultures and proposed neotype cultures of some species in the genus Bacillus . J Gen Microbiol34:269–272
    [Google Scholar]
  49. Young I., Wang I., Roof W. D.. 2000; Phages will out: strategies of host cell lysis. Trends Microbiol8:120–128
    [Google Scholar]
http://instance.metastore.ingenta.com/content/journal/micro/10.1099/mic.0.26307-0
Loading
/content/journal/micro/10.1099/mic.0.26307-0
Loading

Data & Media loading...

Most cited this month Most Cited RSS feed

This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Approval was a Success
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error