is the best studied model organism of the Gram-positive lineage. It is naturally transformable and has an extremely powerful genetic toolbox. It is fast growing and easy to cultivate. It is an important industrial organism, being proficient at secreting proteins and making small fine chemicals, as well as acting as a plant growth promoter. It has been an important model system for studying biofilms. Finally, it makes endospores, which have provided an exceptionally fruitful system for studying various central problems of cellular development, including the generation of asymmetry, cell fate determination and morphogenesis.

This study was supported by the:
  • H2020 European Research Council (Award 670980)
    • Principle Award Recipient: Jeffery Errington
  • Wellcome Trust (Award 209500)
    • Principle Award Recipient: Jeffery Errington
  • This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License. This article was made open access via a Publish and Read agreement between the Microbiology Society and the corresponding author’s institution.

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