1887

Abstract

subsp. small-colony type (SC), the aetiological agent of contagious bovine pleuropneumonia (CBPP), can be grouped into two major, epidemiologically distinct, clusters. One cluster contains strains isolated from different European countries since 1980 and a second cluster contains African and Australian strains collected over the last 50 years. Genetic analysis of representative strains from the two clusters revealed a genomic segment of 884 kb, located close to a copy of IS, which is present in all strains of the African cluster but lacking in all strains of the European cluster. This segment contains a copy of IS, a gene for a potential lipoprotein, , open reading frames encoding a putative surface-located membrane protein and a hypothetical proline-rich membrane protein, and two open reading frames showing similarity to putative ABC transporters. The product of the gene, lipoprotein B (LppB), has an apparent molecular mass of 70 kDa and was shown to be surface located. It is detected with monospecific antibodies in all strains of the African cluster tested, but not in European-cluster strains. DNA sequence analysis of the splicing site at which European strains differ from African-cluster strains by the lack of the 884 kb segment showed that the European cluster has arisen by deletion from a strain of the African cluster. Hence, subsp. SC strains isolated in different European countries from the newly reemerging outbreaks of CBPP, which occurred after the eradication of the epizootic in Europe in the middle of the 20th century, represent a phylogenetically newer cluster that has been derived from a strain of the older cluster of subsp. SC which is still endemic on the African continent.

Loading

Article metrics loading...

/content/journal/micro/10.1099/00221287-146-2-477
2000-02-01
2019-10-23
Loading full text...

Full text loading...

/deliver/fulltext/micro/146/2/1460477a.html?itemId=/content/journal/micro/10.1099/00221287-146-2-477&mimeType=html&fmt=ahah

References

  1. Abdo, E.-M., Nicolet, J., Miserez, R., Gonçalves, R., Regalla, J., Griot, C., Bensaide, A., Krampe, M. & Frey, J. ( 1998; ). Humoral and bronchial immune responses in cattle experimentally infected with Mycoplasma mycoides subsp. mycoides small colony type. Vet Microbiol 59, 109-122.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  2. Altschul, S. F., Gish, W., Miller, W., Myers, E. W. & Lipman, D. J. ( 1990; ). Basic local alignment search tool. J Mol Biol 215, 403-410.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  3. Ausubel, F. M., Brent, R., Kingston, R. E., Moore, D. D., Seidman, J. G., Smith, J. A. & Struhl, K. (1990). Current Protocols in Molecular Biology. New York: Wiley.
  4. Bairoch, A., Bucher, P. & Hofmann, K. ( 1995; ). The PROSITE database, its status in 1995. Nucleic Acids Res 24, 189-196.
    [Google Scholar]
  5. Bannerman, E. S. & Nicolet, J. ( 1971; ). Isolation and identification of porcine Mycoplasma in Switzerland. Schweiz Arch Tierheilkd 113, 697-710.
    [Google Scholar]
  6. Blanchard, B., Saillard, C., Kobisch, M. & Bove, J. M. ( 1996; ). Analysis of putative ABC transporter genes in Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae. Microbiology 142, 1855-1862.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  7. Brenner, C., Wroblewski, H., Le Henaff, M., Montagnier, L. & Blanchard, A. ( 1997; ). Spiralin, a mycoplasmal membrane lipoprotein, induces T-cell-independent B-cell blastogenesis and secretion of proinflammatory cytokines. Infect Immun 65, 4322-4329.
    [Google Scholar]
  8. Cheng, X., Nicolet, J., Poumarat, F., Regalla, J., Thiaucourt, F. & Frey, J. ( 1995; ). Insertion element IS1296 in Mycoplasma mycoides subsp. mycoides small colony identifies a European clonal line distinct from African and Australian strains. Microbiology 141, 3221-3228.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  9. Cheng, X., Nicolet, J., Miserez, R., Kuhnert, P., Krampe, M., Pilloud, T., Abdo, E.-M., Griot, C. & Frey, J. ( 1996; ). Characterization of the gene for an immunodominant 72 kDa lipoprotein of Mycoplasma mycoides subsp. mycoides small colony type. Microbiology 142, 3515-3524.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  10. Egwu, G. O., Nicholas, R. A. J., Ameh, J. A. & Bashiruddin, J. B. ( 1996; ). Contagious bovine pleuropneumonia: an update. Vet Bull 66, 875-888.
    [Google Scholar]
  11. Fraser, C. M., Gocayne, J. D., White, O. & 25 other authors ( 1995; ). The minimal gene complement of Mycoplasma genitalium. Science 270, 397–403.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  12. Frey, J., Cheng, X., Kuhnert, P. & Nicolet, J. ( 1995; ). Identification and characterization of IS1296 in Mycoplasma mycoides subsp. mycoides SC and presence in related mycoplasmas. Gene 160, 95-100.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  13. Frey, J., Cheng, X., Monnerat, M.-P., Abdo, E.-M., Krawinkler, M., Bölske, G. & Nicolet, J. ( 1998; ). Genetic and serological analysis of the immunogenic 67-kDa lipoprotein of Mycoplasma sp. bovine group 7. Res Microbiol 149, 55-64.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  14. Gonçalves, R., Regalla, J., Nicolet, J., Frey, J., Nicholas, R., Bashiruddin, J., De Santis, P. & Gonçalves, A. P. ( 1998; ). Antigen heterogeneity among Mycoplasma mycoides subsp. mycoides SC isolates: discrimination of major surface proteins. Vet Microbiol 63, 13-28.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  15. Herbelin, A., Ruuth, E., Delorme, D., Michel Herbelin, C. & Praz, F. ( 1994; ). Mycoplasma arginini TUH-14 membrane lipoproteins induce production of interleukin-1, interleukin-6, and tumor necrosis factor alpha by human monocytes. Infect Immun 62, 4690-4694.
    [Google Scholar]
  16. Himmelreich, R., Hilbert, H., Plagens, H., Pirkl, E., Li, B. C. & Herrmann, R. ( 1996; ). Complete sequence analysis of the genome of the bacterium Mycoplasma pneumoniae. Nucleic Acids Res 24, 4420-4449.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  17. Houshaymi, B. M., Miles, R. J. & Nicholas, R. A. ( 1997; ). Oxidation of glycerol differentiates African from European isolates of Mycoplasma mycoides subspecies mycoides SC (small colony). Vet Rec 140, 182-183.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  18. Laemmli, U. K. ( 1970; ). Cleavage of structural proteins during the assembly of the head of bacteriophage T4. Nature 227, 680-685.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  19. Monnerat, M.-P., Thiaucourt, F., Poveda, J. B., Nicolet, J. & Frey, J. ( 1999; ). Genetic and serological analysis of lipoprotein LppA in Mycopasma mycoides subsp. mycoides LC and Mycoplasma mycoides subsp. capri. Clin Diagn Lab Immunol 6, 224-230.
    [Google Scholar]
  20. Mühlradt, P. F. & Frisch, M. ( 1994; ). Purification and partial biochemical characterization of a Mycoplasma fermentans-derived substance that activates macrophages to release nitric oxide, tumor necrosis factor and interleukin-6. Infect Immun 62, 3801-3807.
    [Google Scholar]
  21. Nicholas, R. A. J., Santini, F. G., Clark, K. M., Palmer, N. M. A., De Santis, P. & Bashiruddin, J. B. ( 1996; ). A comparison of serological tests and gross lung pathology for detecting contagious bovine pleuropneumonia in two groups of Italian cattle. Vet Rec 139, 89-93.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  22. Nielsen, H., Engelbrecht, J., Brunak, S. & von Heijne, G. ( 1997; ). Identification of prokaryotic and eukaryotic signal peptides and prediction of their cleavage sites. Protein Eng 10, 1-6.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  23. Poumarat, F. & Solsona, M. ( 1994; ). Molecular epidemiology of Mycoplasma mycoides subsp. mycoides biotype ‘‘Small Colony’’ (M.m.m. SC). IOM Lett 3, 23 (Abstract).
    [Google Scholar]
  24. Proft, T., Hilbert, H., Layh Schmitt, G. & Herrmann, R. ( 1995; ). The proline-rich P65 protein of Mycoplasma pneumoniae is a component of the Triton X-100-insoluble fraction and exhibits size polymorphism in the strains M129 and FH. J Bacteriol 177, 3370-3378.
    [Google Scholar]
  25. Rawadi, G. & Roman-Roman, S. ( 1996; ). Mycoplasma membrane lipoproteins induce proinflammatory cytokines by a mechanism distinct from that of lipopolysaccharide. Infect Immun 64, 637-643.
    [Google Scholar]
  26. Razin, S., Yogev, D. & Naot, Y. ( 1998; ). Molecular biology and pathogenicity of mycoplasmas. Microbiol Mol Biol Rev 62, 1094-1156.
    [Google Scholar]
  27. Schaller, A., Kuhn, R., Kuhnert, P., Nicolet, J., Anderson, T. J., MacInnes, J. I., Segers, R. P. A. M. & Frey, J. ( 1999; ). Characterization of apxIVA, a new RTX determinant of Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae. Microbiology 145, 2105-2116.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  28. Vilei, E. M., Nicolet, J. & Frey, J. ( 1999; ). IS1634, a novel insertion element creating long, variable-length direct repeats which is specific for Mycoplasma mycoides subsp. mycoides small-colony type. J Bacteriol 181, 1319-1323.
    [Google Scholar]
  29. Zheng, X., Teng, L. J., Watson, H. L., Glass, J. I., Blanchard, A. & Cassell, G. H. ( 1995; ). Small repeating units within the Ureaplasma urealyticum MB antigen gene encode serovar specificity and are associated with antigen size variation. Infect Immun 63, 891-898.
    [Google Scholar]
http://instance.metastore.ingenta.com/content/journal/micro/10.1099/00221287-146-2-477
Loading
/content/journal/micro/10.1099/00221287-146-2-477
Loading

Data & Media loading...

This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Approval was a Success
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error