1887

Abstract

Summary: It was recently shown that the nematode-infecting fungus contains a saline-soluble lectin (designated AOL) that is a member of a novel family of fungal lectins sharing similar primary sequences and binding specificities. During saprophytic growth in liquid cultures, levels of AOL and AOL mRNA were found to vary depending on the growth phase of the mycelium and the carbon/nitrogen (C/N) ratio of the medium. AOL was not detected in young mycelium. In older mycelium (stationary growth phase) grown in media with low C/N ratios (1 or 6), AOL comprised 5-20% of the total amount of saline-soluble proteins present in the mycelium. Neither the lectin nor its transcript was detected in mycelia grown in medium with higher C/N ratios (≥150). Under conditions of nitrogen starvation, AOL was preferentially degraded in relation to the total amount of saline-soluble proteins present in the mycelium. During the infection of nematodes, the level of AOL protein and AOL mRNA increased significantly once the nematodes had been penetrated and digested. Large amounts of AOL accumulated in the trophic hyphae growing inside the nematode as visualized by immunofluorescence microscopy. Later, AOL labelling was detected outside the digested nematodes, preferentially in strands of aggregated hyphae and in newly developed trap cells. Electron microscopy showed that AOL was localized to the cytoplasm and the nucleus of both vegetative mycelium and trap cells, and in the trophic hyphae growing inside the infected nematodes. These results indicate that AOL functions as a storage protein during both saprophytic and parasitic growth.

Loading

Article metrics loading...

/content/journal/micro/10.1099/00221287-143-8-2593
1997-08-01
2021-10-27
Loading full text...

Full text loading...

/deliver/fulltext/micro/143/8/mic-143-8-2593.html?itemId=/content/journal/micro/10.1099/00221287-143-8-2593&mimeType=html&fmt=ahah

References

  1. Barondes S. H., Cooper D. N. W., Gitt M. A., Leffler H. 1994; Galectins. Structure and function of a large family of animal lectins. J Biol Chem 269:20807–20810
    [Google Scholar]
  2. Borrebaeck C. A. K., Mattiasson B., Nordbring-Hertz B. 1984; Isolation and partial characterization of a carbohydrate binding protein from a nematode-trapping fungus. J Bacteriol 159:53–56
    [Google Scholar]
  3. Bradford M. M. 1976; A rapid and sensitive method for the quantitation of microgram quantities of protein utilizing the principle of protein–dye binding. Anal Biochem 72:248–254
    [Google Scholar]
  4. Chomczynski P., Sacchi N. 1987; Single-step method of RNA isolation by acid guanidinium thiocyanate-phenol-chloroform extraction. Anal Biochem 162:156–159
    [Google Scholar]
  5. Cooper D. N. W., Boulianne R. P., Charlton S., Farrell E. M., Sucher A., Lu B. C. 1997; Fungal galectins, sequence and specificity of two isoforms from Coprinus cinereus . J Biol Chem 272:1514–1521
    [Google Scholar]
  6. Cornish-Bowden A. 1979; How reliably do amino acid comparisons predict sequence similarities between proteins?. J Theor Biol 76:369–386
    [Google Scholar]
  7. Crenshaw R. W., Harper S. N., Moyer M., Privalle L. S. 1995; Isolation and characterization of a cDNA clone encoding a lectin gene from Agaricus bisporus. . Plant Physiol 107:1465–1466
    [Google Scholar]
  8. Dons J. J., M„ de Vries O. M. H., Wessels J. G. H. 1979; Characterization of the genome of the basidiomycete Schizo-phyllum commune. . Biochim Biophys Acta 563:100–112
    [Google Scholar]
  9. Dubois M., Gilles K. A., Hamilton J. K., Rebers P. A., Smith F. 1956; Colorimetric method for determination of sugars and related substances. Anal Chem 28:350–356
    [Google Scholar]
  10. Harlow E., Lane D. 1988 Antibodies: a Laboratory Manual Cold Spring Harbor, NY: Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory;
    [Google Scholar]
  11. Herscovics A., Orlean P. 1993; Glycoprotein biosynthesis in yeast. FASEB J 7:540–550
    [Google Scholar]
  12. Kellens J. T. C., Peumans W. J. 1990; Developmental accumulation of lectin in Rhizoctonia solani: a potential role as a storage protein. J Gen Microbiol 136:2489–2495
    [Google Scholar]
  13. Kobata A. 1992; Structures and functions of the sugar chains of glycoproteins. Eur J Biochem 209:483–501
    [Google Scholar]
  14. Moore D. 1995; Tissue formation. . In The Growing Fungus pp. 423–465 . Edited by Gow N. A. R., Gadd G. M. London: Chapman & Hall;
    [Google Scholar]
  15. Nordbring-Hertz B. 1973; Peptide-induced morphogenesis in the nematode-trapping fungus Arthrobotrys oligospora. . Physiol Plant 29:223–233
    [Google Scholar]
  16. Nordbring-Hertz B. 1977; Nematode induced morphogenesis in the predacious fungus Arthrobotrys oligospora. . Nematologica 23:443–451
    [Google Scholar]
  17. Nordbring-Hertz B., Mattiasson B. 1979; Action of a nematode-trapping fungus shows lectin-mediated host-micro-organism interaction. Nature 281:477–479
    [Google Scholar]
  18. Nordbring-Hertz B., Veenhuis M., Harder W. 1984; Dialysis membrane technique for ultrastructural studies of microbial interactions. Appl Environ Microbiol 45:290–293
    [Google Scholar]
  19. Pemberton R. T. 1994; Agglutinins (lectins) from some British higher fungi. Mycol Res 98:277–290
    [Google Scholar]
  20. Peumans W. J., Van Damme E. J. M. 1995; Lectins as plant defense proteins. Plant Physiol 109:347–352
    [Google Scholar]
  21. Pfister D. H., Liftik M. E. 1995; Two Arthrobotrys anamorphs from Orbilia auricolor. . Mycologia 87:684–688
    [Google Scholar]
  22. Presant C. A., Kornfeld S. 1972; Characterization of the cell surface receptor for the Agaricus bisporus hemagglutinin. J Biol Chem 247:6937–6945
    [Google Scholar]
  23. Rosén S. 1996 Fungal lectins. Molecular structure and function of a member of a novel lectin family PhD thesis Lund University;
    [Google Scholar]
  24. Rosén S., Ek B., Rask L., Tunlid A. 1992; Purification and characterization of a surface lectin from the nematode-trapping fungus Arthrobotrys oligospora. . J Gen Microbiol 138:2663–2672
    [Google Scholar]
  25. Rosén S., Kata M., Persson Y., Lipniunas P. H., Wikstrӧm M., van den Hondel C. A. M. J. J., van den Brink J. M., Rask L., Hedén L-O., Tunlid A. 1996a; Molecular characterization of a saline soluble lectin from a parasitic fungus. Extensive sequence similarities between fungal lectins. Eur J Biochem 238:822–829
    [Google Scholar]
  26. Rosén S., Bergstrӧm J., Karlsson K.-A., Tunlid A. 1996b; A multispecific saline soluble lectin from the parasitic fungus Arthrobotrys oligospora. Similar binding specificities as a lectin from the mushroom Agaricus bisporus. . Eur J Biochem 238:830–837
    [Google Scholar]
  27. Sambrook J., Fritsch E. F., Maniatis T. 1989 Molecular Cloning: a Laboratory Manual, 2nd edn.. Cold Spring Harbor, NY: Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory;
    [Google Scholar]
  28. Schmidt D. M., Ernst J. D. 1995; A fluorometric assay for the quantification of RNA in solution with nanogram sensitivity. Anal Biochem 232:144–146
    [Google Scholar]
  29. Sueyoshi S., Tsuji T., Osawa T. 1985; Purification and characterization of four isolectins of mushroom (Agaricus bisporus). Biol Chem Hoppe-Seyler 366:213–221
    [Google Scholar]
  30. Thompson J. A., Lau A. L., Cunningham D. D. 1987; Selective radiolabeling of cell surface proteins to a high specific activity. Biochemistry 26:743–750
    [Google Scholar]
  31. Veenhuis M., Nordbring-Hertz B., Harder W. 1985; Development and fate of electron-dense microbodies in trap cells of the nematophagous fungus Arthrobotrys oligospora. . Antonie Leeuwenhoek 51:399–407
    [Google Scholar]
  32. Veenhuis M., Harder W., Nordbring-Hertz B. 1989a; Occurrence and metabolic significance of microbodies in trophic hyphae of the nematophagous fungus Arthrobotrys oligospora. . Antonie Leeuwenhoek 56:241–249
    [Google Scholar]
  33. Veenhuis M., Van Wijk C., Wyss U., Nordbring-Hertz B., Harder W. 1989b; Significance of electron dense microbodies in trap cells of the nematophagous fungus Arthrobotrys oligospora . Antonie Leeuwenhoek 56:251–261
    [Google Scholar]
  34. Watkinson S. C. 1984; Morphogenesis of the Serpula Lacrimans colony in relation to its function in nature. . In The Ecology and Physiology of the Fungal Mycelium pp. 165–184 . Edited by Jennings D. H., Rayner A. D. M. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press;
    [Google Scholar]
  35. Yakura K., Kato A., Tanifuji S. 1984; Length heterogeneity of the large spacer of Vida faba rDNA is due to the differing number of a 325 bp repetitive sequence elements. Mol Gen Genet 193:400–405
    [Google Scholar]
http://instance.metastore.ingenta.com/content/journal/micro/10.1099/00221287-143-8-2593
Loading
/content/journal/micro/10.1099/00221287-143-8-2593
Loading

Data & Media loading...

Most cited this month Most Cited RSS feed

This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Approval was a Success
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error