1887

Abstract

The sheaths of two species of cyanobacteria, (two strains) and (one strain), were studied. Their fine structure showed osmiophilic fibres running parallel to the cell surface. Enriched sheath fractions were obtained from both species in high yields in the phenol/water interphase after hot phenol/water extraction of cell homogenates. The purified sheaths of the two species had similar chemical compositions, with about 50% (of sheath dry weight) neutral sugars (galactose, glucose, mannose, xylose, arabinose, rhamnose, fucose, a 2--methylhexose and an unidentified 2--methyl sugar), 5% amino acids and small amounts of glucosamine and galacturonic acid. The sheath composition was independent of changes in the iron or phosphate content of the culture medium. The sheath was insoluble in water, and its chemical composition remained essentially unchanged on application of drastic extraction methods, including boiling in 2% (w/v) SDS. The sheath bound heavy metals (up to at least 0.7% of sheath dry weight) with the effectiveness (measured as absolute quantities) Fe > Zn > Cu > Ni > Mn > Mo > Co. Ni, Cu, Zn and Fe were highly enriched relative to their concentration in the culture medium. The concentration factors for Mo. Mn, Ca, Na and K were low.

Loading

Article metrics loading...

/content/journal/micro/10.1099/00221287-134-3-629
1988-03-01
2021-10-20
Loading full text...

Full text loading...

/deliver/fulltext/micro/134/3/mic-134-3-629.html?itemId=/content/journal/micro/10.1099/00221287-134-3-629&mimeType=html&fmt=ahah

References

  1. Adhikary S. P., Weckesser J., JÜrgens U. J., Golecki J. R., Borowiak D. 1986; Isolation and chemical characterization of the sheath from the cyanobacterium Chroococcus minutus SAG B.41.79. Journal of General Microbiology 132:2595–2599
    [Google Scholar]
  2. Aizenshat Z., Lipiner G., Cohen Y. 1984; Biogeochemistry of carbon and sulfur cycle in the microbial mats of the Solar Lake (Sinai). In Microbial Mats; Stromatolites pp 281–312 Cohen Y., Castenholz R. W., Halvorson H. O. Edited by New York:: Alan R. Liss;
    [Google Scholar]
  3. Amemiya Y., Nakayama O. 1984; The chemical composition and metal adsorption capacity of the sheath materials isolated from Microcystis, cyanobacteria. Japanese Journal of Limnology 45:187–193
    [Google Scholar]
  4. Douglas D., Peat A., Whitton B. A. 1986; Influence of iron status on structure of the cyanobacterium (blue-green alga) Calothrix parietina. Cytobios 47:190–191
    [Google Scholar]
  5. Drews G., Weckesser J. 1982; Function, structure and composition of cell walls and external layers. In The Biology of Cyanobacteria pp 333–357 Carr N. G., Whitton B. A. Edited by Oxford: Blackwell Scientific Publications;
    [Google Scholar]
  6. Evers D., Weckesser J., JÜrgens U. J. 1986; Chemical analyses on cell envelope polymers of the halophilic, phototrophic Rhodospirillum salexigens. Archives of Microbiology 145:254–258
    [Google Scholar]
  7. Galambos J. T. 1967; The reaction of carbazole with carbohydrates. Analytical Biochemistry 19:119–132
    [Google Scholar]
  8. Golecki J. R. 1977; Studies on ultrastructure and composition of cell walls of the cyanobacterium Anacystis nidulans. Archives of Microbiology 11435–41
    [Google Scholar]
  9. Jansson P. E., Kenne L., Liedgren H., Lindberg B., LÖnngren J. 1976; A practical guide to the methylation analysis of carbohydrates. Chemical Communications 197681–74
    [Google Scholar]
  10. JÜrgens U. J., Weckesser J. 1986; Polysaccharide covalently linked to the peptidoglycan of the cyanobacteriumSynechocystissp. strain PCC 6714. Journal of Bacteriology 168:568–573
    [Google Scholar]
  11. KickhÖfen B., Warth R. 1968; Eine Trennkammer für die Hochspannungselektrophorese nach dem Michel’schen Prinzip. Journal of Chromatography 33:558–560
    [Google Scholar]
  12. Krumbein W. E. 1983 Microbial Geochemistry Oxford:: Blackwell Scientific Publications;
    [Google Scholar]
  13. Livingstone D., Whitton B. A. 1983; Influence of phosphorus on morphology of Calothrix parietina(Cyanophyta) in culture. British Phycological Journal 18:29–38
    [Google Scholar]
  14. Lowry O. H., Roberts N. R., Leiner K. Y., Wu M. L., Farr A. L. 1954; The quantitative histochemistry of brain. I. Chemical methods. Journal of Biological Chemistry 207:1–17
    [Google Scholar]
  15. Rai A. K., Pandey K. D., Kashyap A. K. 1978; Heterocyst differentiation and polarity in Calothrix. New Phytologist 81:647–651
    [Google Scholar]
  16. Rippka R., Deruelles J., Waterbury J. B., Herdman M., Stanier R. Y. 1979; Generic assignments, strain histories and properties of pure cultures of cyanobacteria. Journal of General Microbiology 111:1–61
    [Google Scholar]
  17. Schrader M., Drews G., Golecki J. R., Weckesser J. 1982a; Isolation and characterization of sheath from the unicellular cyanobacteriumChlorogloeopsisPCC 6912. Journal of General Microbiology 128:267–272
    [Google Scholar]
  18. Schrader M., Drews G., Weckesser J., Mayer H. 1982b; Polysaccharide containing 6-O-methyl-d-mannose in Chlorogloeopsis PCC 6912. Journal of General Microbiology 128:273–277
    [Google Scholar]
  19. Sinclair C., Whitton B. A. 1977; Influence of nitrogen source on morphology of Rivulariaceae (Cyanophyta). Journal of Phycology 13:335–340
    [Google Scholar]
  20. Weckesser J., Drews G., Mayer H. 1979; Lipopolysaccharides of photosynthetic prokaryotes. Annual Review of Microbiology 33:215–239
    [Google Scholar]
  21. Weckesser J., Broll C., Adhikary S. P., JÜrgens U. J. 1987; 2-O-Methyl-d-xylose containing sheath in the cyanobacterium Gloeothecesp. PCC 6501. Archives of Microbiology 147:300–303
    [Google Scholar]
  22. Westphal O., LÜderitz O., Bister F. 1952; Über die Extraktion von Bakterienmit Phenol/Wasser. Zeitschrift für Naturforschung 7b:148–155
    [Google Scholar]
http://instance.metastore.ingenta.com/content/journal/micro/10.1099/00221287-134-3-629
Loading
/content/journal/micro/10.1099/00221287-134-3-629
Loading

Data & Media loading...

Most cited this month Most Cited RSS feed

This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Approval was a Success
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error