1887

Abstract

A novel technique has been developed to study complex spatial interactions between microorganisms, enzymes and their substrates in soil using barriers composed of soil and soil components inserted into agar plates. This has allowed the investigation of extracellular enzyme diffusion and microbial growth through soil-like but carefully controlled environments. Using ‘barrier-ring plates’ the effects of small quantities of soil and various soil components on endoglucanase and --glucosidase diffusion was shown. Bentonite, with a relatively high unit surface area and a high cation exchange capacity, reduced the distance diffused by both enzymes. Kaolinite, a clay with a relatively low unit surface area and a low cation exchange capacity, had no effect while the colloidal-size (<2 μm) clay-humic fraction separated from a silt loam soil reduced the distance diffused by endoglucanase by an amount intermediate between that of kaolinite and bentonite. The same barrier-ring plate technique was used to demonstrate how soil components differentially affect the radial growth of a cellulolytic sp. and , . and .

Loading

Article metrics loading...

/content/journal/micro/10.1099/00221287-131-5-1237
1985-05-01
2021-08-03
Loading full text...

Full text loading...

/deliver/fulltext/micro/131/5/mic-131-5-1237.html?itemId=/content/journal/micro/10.1099/00221287-131-5-1237&mimeType=html&fmt=ahah

References

  1. Avery B. W., Bascomb C. L. 1974 Soil Survey Laboratory Methods. Soil Survey Technical Monograph no. 6 Harpenden: Rothamsted Experimental Station;
    [Google Scholar]
  2. Berg B., Hofsten B., Pettersson G. 1972; Growth and cellulase formation by Cellυibrio fulυus. Journal of Applied Bacteriology 35:201–214
    [Google Scholar]
  3. Burns R. G. 1982; Carbon mineralisation by mixed cultures. In Microbial Interactions and Communities475–543 Bull A.T., Slater J. H. London: Academic Press;
    [Google Scholar]
  4. Burns R. G. 1983; Extracellular enzyme–substrate interactions in soil. Symposia of the Society for General Microbiology 34:249–298
    [Google Scholar]
  5. Cohen B. L. 1980; Transport and utilization of proteins by fungi. In Microorganisms and Nitrogen Sources411–430 Edited by Payne J. W. Chichester: John Wiley & Sons;
    [Google Scholar]
  6. Dingle J., Reid W. W., Solomons G. L. 1953; The enzymic degradation of pectin and other polysaccharides. II. Application of the ‘cup-plate’ assay to the estimation of enzymes. Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture 4:149–155
    [Google Scholar]
  7. Filip Z. 1973; Clay minerals as factors influencing biochemical activity of soil microorganisms. Folia microbiologica 18:56–74
    [Google Scholar]
  8. Filip Z., Haider K., Martin J. P. 1972; Influence of clay minerals on growth and metabolic activity of Epicoccum nigrum and Stachybotrys chartarum. Soil Biology and Biochemistry 4:134–145
    [Google Scholar]
  9. Greenland D. J. 1956; The adsorption of sugars by montmorillonite. II. Chemical studies. Journal of Soil Science 7:329–334
    [Google Scholar]
  10. Hankin L., Anagnostakis S. L. 1977; Solid media containing carboxymethylcellulose to detect Cx cellulase activity of micro-organisms. Journal of General Microbiology 98:109–115
    [Google Scholar]
  11. Ishaque M., Kluepfel D. 1980; Cellulase complex of a mesophilic Streptomyces strain. Canadian Journal of Microbiology 26:183–189
    [Google Scholar]
  12. Jenkinson D. S., Ladd J. N. 1981; Microbial biomass in soil: measurement and turnover. In Soil Biochemistry 5415–471 Paul E. A., Ladd J. N. New York: Marcel Dekker;
    [Google Scholar]
  13. Lethbridge G., Burns R. G. 1976; Inhibition of soil urease by organophosphorus insecticides. Soil Biology and Biochemistry 8:479–484
    [Google Scholar]
  14. Marshall K. C. 1976 Interfaces in Microbial Ecology Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press;
    [Google Scholar]
  15. Marshman N. A., Marshall K. C. 1981; Bacterial growth on proteins in the presence of clay minerals. Soil Biology and Biochemistry 13:127–134
    [Google Scholar]
  16. Miller G. L., Blum R., Glennon W. E., Burton A. L. 1960; Measurement of carboxymethyl cellulase activity. Analytical Biochemistry 1:127–132
    [Google Scholar]
  17. Ottow J. C. G., Makboul H. E., Munch J. C. 1983; Effect of pedogenic clay minerals on the kinetics (Km and Vmax) of alkaline and acid phosphatase. Zeitschrift fur Pflanzenemahrungund Bodenkunde 146:3–12
    [Google Scholar]
  18. Rifai M. A. 1969; A revision of the genus Tricho-derma . In Mycological Papers, no. 116 London: Commonwealth Mycological Institute;
    [Google Scholar]
  19. Robinson P. M. 1978 Practical Fungal Physiology Chichester: John Wiley & Sons;
    [Google Scholar]
  20. Sorensen L. H. 1981; Carbon–nitrogen relationships during the humification of cellulose in soils containing different amounts of clay. Soil Biology and Biochemistry 13:313–321
    [Google Scholar]
  21. Sternberg D. 1976; Production of cellulase by Trichoderma. Biotechnology and Bioengineering Symposium 635–53
    [Google Scholar]
  22. Stotzky G. 1980; Surface interactions between clay minerals and microbes, viruses and soluble organics, and the probable importance of these interactions to the ecology of microbes in soil. In Microbial Adhesion to Surfaces231–247 Berkeley R. C. W., Lynch J. M., Melling J., Rutter P. R., Vincent B. Chichester: Ellis Horwood;
    [Google Scholar]
  23. Stotzky G., Burns R. G. 1982; The soil environment: clay–humus–microbe interactions. Experimental Microbial Ecology105–133 Burns R. G., Slater J. H. Oxford: Blackwell Scientific Press;
    [Google Scholar]
  24. Theng G. K. G. 1979 Formation and Properties of Clay–Polymer Complexes Amsterdam: Elsevier;
    [Google Scholar]
  25. Trinci A. P. J. 1969; A kinetic study of the growth of Aspergillus nidulans and other fungi. Journal of General Microbiology 57:11–24
    [Google Scholar]
  26. Zantua M. I., Bremner J. M. 1976; Production and persistence of urease activity in soils. Soil Biology and Biochemistry 8:369–374
    [Google Scholar]
http://instance.metastore.ingenta.com/content/journal/micro/10.1099/00221287-131-5-1237
Loading
/content/journal/micro/10.1099/00221287-131-5-1237
Loading

Data & Media loading...

This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Approval was a Success
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error