1887

Abstract

Mycoplasma-like organisms (MLO) associated with lethal yellowing disease of coconut palms exhibited a range of different morphologies even within the same sieve element. The morphologies were revealed by graphic reconstruction from ribbons of serial ultrathin sections containing 45 sections. Five different morphotypes were recognized amongst the 120 organisms reconstructed. MLO could be saccate, erythrocyte-like, cylindrical, monili-form or filiform. The different morphotypes showed differences in linear dimensions apart from their particular morphological characteristics. Saccate MLO were generally the smallest, the maximum length being 1 m, whilst the filiform organisms could be more than 16 m long. The morphologies of the MLO were analogous to those now recognized as usual for and species during the later stages of development. Comparison of the individual profile shapes used in the reconstructions with those of MLO from other diseased plants suggest that many previous interpretations of MLO morphology may have been too simple. With the insight provided by the understanding of the relationship between profile shape and three-dimensional form, the ultrastructure of individual profiles is shown to be an important indicator of form.

Loading

Article metrics loading...

/content/journal/micro/10.1099/00221287-116-1-111
1980-01-01
2021-10-28
Loading full text...

Full text loading...

/deliver/fulltext/micro/116/1/mic-116-1-111.html?itemId=/content/journal/micro/10.1099/00221287-116-1-111&mimeType=html&fmt=ahah

References

  1. Anderson D. R. 1969; Ultrastructural studies of mycoplasmas and L-phase of bacteria. In The Mycoplasmatales and the L-phase of Bacteria pp. 365–401 Hayflick L. Jr Edited by New York: Appleton-Century-Crofts;
    [Google Scholar]
  2. Beakbane B. A., Slater C. H. W., Posnette A. F. 1972; Mycoplasmas in the phloem of coconut,Cocos nucifera L., with lethal yellowing disease. Journal of Horticultural Science 47:265
    [Google Scholar]
  3. Bernstein-Ziv R. 1971; The effect of hypotonic solutions on the morphology of cells ofMycoplasma gallisepticum . Canadian Journal of Microbiology 17:1203–1205
    [Google Scholar]
  4. Boatman E. S. 1973a; Morphology and ultrastructure of mycoplasmas. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences 225:172–180
    [Google Scholar]
  5. Boatman E. S. 1973b; Morphological heterogeneity of the Mycoplasmatales. Journal of Infectious Diseases 127: supplement S12–S14
    [Google Scholar]
  6. Boatman E. S., Kenny G. E. 1970; Threedimensional morphology, ultrastructure, and replication ofMycoplasma felis . Journal of Bacteriology 101:262–277
    [Google Scholar]
  7. Boatman E. S., Kenny G. E. 1971; Morphology and ultrastructure ofMycoplasma pneumoniaespherules. Journal of Bacteriology 106:1005–1015
    [Google Scholar]
  8. Braun E. J. 1977; A freeze-etch and thin-section study of mycoplasmas inVinca rosea phloem. Journal of Ultrastructural Research 60:44–51
    [Google Scholar]
  9. Bredt W. 1970; Experimentelle Untersuchungen ixber Morphologie und Vermehrung der beim Menschen vorkommenden Mycoplasmen unter besondere Beriicksichtigung vonMycoplasma hominis . Zeitschrift für medizinische Mikrobiologie und Immunologie 155:248–274
    [Google Scholar]
  10. Bredt W., Heunert H. H., Hofling K. H., Milthaler B. 1973; Microcinematographic studies ofMycoplasma hominis cells. Journal Of Bacteriology 113:1223–1227
    [Google Scholar]
  11. Cole R. M., Tully J. G., Popkin T. J., Bové J. M. 1973; Morphology, ultrastructure, and bacteriophage infection of the helical mycoplasmalike organism(Spiroplasma citri gen.nov., sp.nov.) cultured from ‘stubborn’ disease of citrus. Journal of Bacteriology 115:367–386
    [Google Scholar]
  12. Davis R. E., Worley J. F. 1973; Spiroplasma: motile, helical organism associated with corn stunt disease. Phytopathology 63:403–408
    [Google Scholar]
  13. Davis R. E., Worley J. F., Whitcomb R. F., Ishijima T., Steere R. L. 1972; Helical filaments produced by a mycoplasma-like organism associated with corn stunt disease. Science 176:521–523
    [Google Scholar]
  14. Doi Y., Teranka M., Yora K., Asuyma H. 1967; Mycoplasma- or PLT-like microorganisms found in the phloem elements of plants infected with mulberry dwarf, potato witches’ broom, aster yellows or paulowinia witches’ broom. Annals of the Phytopathological Society of Japan 33:259–266 [Translated from the original Japanese in Review of Plant Protection Research 1969; 2:84–88]
    [Google Scholar]
  15. Dunn R. F. 1972; Graphic three-dimensional representations from serial sections. Journal Of Microscopy 96:301–307
    [Google Scholar]
  16. Florance E. R., Cameron H. R. 1978; Three dimensional structure and morphology of mycoplasmalike bodies associated with albino disease ofPrunus avium. Phytopathology 68:75–80
    [Google Scholar]
  17. Freundt E. A. 1960; Morphology and classification of the PPLO. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences 79:312–325
    [Google Scholar]
  18. Freundt E. A. 1969; Cellular morphology and mode of replication of the mycoplasmas. In he Mycoplasmatales and the L-phase of Bacteria pp. 281–315 Hayflick L. Jr Edited by New York: Appleton-Century-Crofts;
    [Google Scholar]
  19. Furness G. 1970; The growth and morphology of mycoplasmas replicating in synchrony. Journal of Infectious Diseases 122:146–158
    [Google Scholar]
  20. Graf M. E., Ehrenfeld R., Davis R. E. 1978; Stereo electronmicroscopy of mycoplasmalike organisms inErodium cicutarium with yellows disease symptoms. Plant Disease Reporter 62:535–538
    [Google Scholar]
  21. Haggis G. H., Sinha R. C. 1978; Scanning electron microscopy of mycoplasmalike organisms after freeze fracture of plant tissues affected with clover phyllody and aster yellows. Phytopathology 68:677–680
    [Google Scholar]
  22. Hearon S. S., Lawson R. H., Smith F. F., McKenzie J. T., Rosen J. 1976; Morphology of filamentous forms of a mycoplasmalike organism associated with hydrangea virescence. Phytopathology 66:608–616
    [Google Scholar]
  23. Hirumi H. H., Maramorosch K. 1973; Ultrastructure of the aster yellows agent: mycoplasmalike bodies in sieve tube elements ofNicotiana rustica. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences 225:201–222
    [Google Scholar]
  24. Horne R. W. 1972; Comparison between the structure of animal and plant mycoplasmas: extracellular and intracellular morphology. In CIBA Foundation Symposium on Pathogenic Mycoplasmas pp. 39–57 Elliot K., Birch J. Edited by Amsterdam: Associated Science Publishers;
    [Google Scholar]
  25. Hunt P., Dabek A. J., Schuiling M. 1974; Remission of symptoms following tetracycline treatment of lethal yellowing infected coconut palms. Phytopathology 64:307–312
    [Google Scholar]
  26. Lemcke R. M. 1972; Osmolar concentrations and fixation of mycoplasmas. Journal of Bacteriology 110:1154–1162
    [Google Scholar]
  27. MacBeath J. H., Nyland G., Spurr A. R. 1972; Morphology of mycoplasmalike bodies associated with peach X-disease inPrunus avium. Phytopathology 62:935–937
    [Google Scholar]
  28. Maniloff J., Morowitz H. J. 1972; Cell biology of the mycoplasmas. Bacteriological Reviews 36:263–290
    [Google Scholar]
  29. Maramorosch K., Granados R. R., Hirumi H. 1970; Mycoplasma diseases of plants and insects. Advances in Virus Research 16:135–193
    [Google Scholar]
  30. Markham P. G., Townsend R., Bar-Joseph M., Daniels M. J., Plaskitt A., Meddins B. M. 1974; Spiroplasmas are the causal agent of citrus little leaf disease. Annals of Applied Biology 78:49–57
    [Google Scholar]
  31. McCoy R. E. 1972; Remission of lethal yellowing in coconut palm treated with tetracycline antibiotics. Plant Disease Reporter 56:1010–1021
    [Google Scholar]
  32. Morowitz H. J., Wallace D. C. 1973; Genome size and the life cycle of the mycoplasma. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences 225:62–73
    [Google Scholar]
  33. Parthasarathy M. V. 1974; Mycoplasma-like organisms associated with lethal yellowing disease of palms. Phytopathology 64:667–674
    [Google Scholar]
  34. Petzold H., Marwitz R., Özel M., Goszd-Ziewski P. 1977; Versuche zum raterelektron- mikroskopischen Nachweis von mykoplasma- ähnlichen Organismen. Phytopathologische Zeit schrift 89:237–248
    [Google Scholar]
  35. Plavsic-Banjac B., Hunt P., Maramorosch K. 1972; Mycoplasmalike bodies associated with lethal yellowing disease of coconuts. Phytopathology 62:298–299
    [Google Scholar]
  36. Razin S. 1978; The mycoplasmas. Microbiological Reviews 42:414–470
    [Google Scholar]
  37. Razin S., Cosenza B. J., Tourtellotte M. E. 1967; Filamentous growth of mycoplasma. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences 143:66–72
    [Google Scholar]
  38. Reid N. 1974; Ultramicrotomy. In Practical Methods in Electron Microscopy 3 p. 288 Glauert A. M. Edited by Amsterdam: North- Holland Publishing Company;
    [Google Scholar]
  39. Robertson J., Gomersall M., Gill P. 1975a; Effect of preparatory techniques on the gross morphology ofMycoplasma hominis. Journal of Bacteriology 124:1019–1022
    [Google Scholar]
  40. Robertson J., Gomersall M., Gill P. 1975b; Mycoplasma hominis: growth, reproduction and isolation of small viable cells. Journal of Bacteriology 124:1007–1018
    [Google Scholar]
  41. Saglio P., L’hospital M., Laflèche D., Dupont G., Bové J. M., Tully J. G., Freundt E. A. 1973; Spiroplasma citri gen. and sp.n.: a mycoplasma-like organism associated with ‘stubborn’ disease of citrus. International Journal of Systematic Bacteriology 23:191–204
    [Google Scholar]
  42. Spurr A. R. 1969; A low viscosity epoxy resin embedding medium for electron microscopy. Journal of Ultrastructural Research 26:31–43
    [Google Scholar]
  43. Tully J. G. 1978; Biology of the mycoplasmas. In Mycoplasma Infection of Cell Cultures pp. 1–33 McGarrity G. J., Murphy D. G., Nichols W. N. Edited by New York: Plenum Publishing Corporation;
    [Google Scholar]
  44. Turner A. W. 1935; A study of the morphology and life cycles of the organism ofPleuropneumonia contagiosa bourn (Borrelomyces peripneumonianov.gen.) by observation in the living state under dark-ground illumination. Journal of Pathology and Bacteriology 41:1–32
    [Google Scholar]
  45. Venable J. H., Coggershall R. 1965; A simplified lead citrate stain for use in electron microscopy. Journal of Cell Biology 25:407–408
    [Google Scholar]
  46. Waters H., Hunt P. 1978; Serial sectioning to demonstrate the morphology of a plant mycoplasma-like organism. Zentralblatt für Bakteriologie, Parasitenkunde, Infektionskrankheiten und Hygiene 241:225
    [Google Scholar]
  47. Wolanski B. S. 1973; Negative staining of plant agents. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences 225:223–235
    [Google Scholar]
  48. Wolanski B. S., Maramorosch K. 1970; Negatively stained mycoplasmas: fact or artifact. Virology 42:319–327
    [Google Scholar]
  49. Worley J. F. 1970; Possible replicative forms of a mycoplasma-like organism and their location in aster yellows diseasedNicotiana and aster. Phytopathology 60:284–292
    [Google Scholar]
http://instance.metastore.ingenta.com/content/journal/micro/10.1099/00221287-116-1-111
Loading
/content/journal/micro/10.1099/00221287-116-1-111
Loading

Data & Media loading...

Most cited this month Most Cited RSS feed

This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Approval was a Success
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error