1887

Abstract

Thymol (THY) was found to have antifungal activity against 24 fluconazole (FLC)-resistant and 12 FLC-susceptible clinical isolates of , standard strain ATCC 10231 and one experimentally induced FLC-resistant S-1. In addition, synergism was observed for clinical isolates of with combinations of THY–FLC and THY–amphotericin B (AMB) evaluated by the chequerboard microdilution method. The interaction intensity was determined by spectrophotometry for the chequerboard assay, and the nature of the interactions was assessed using two non-parametric approaches [fractional inhibitory concentration index (FICI) and ΔE models]. The interaction between THY–FLC or THY–AMB in FLC-resistant and -susceptible strains of showed a high percentage of synergism by the FICI method and the Δ method. The ΔE model gave results consistent with FICI, and no antagonistic action was observed in the strains tested.

Loading

Article metrics loading...

/content/journal/jmm/10.1099/jmm.0.008052-0
2009-08-01
2020-01-20
Loading full text...

Full text loading...

/deliver/fulltext/jmm/58/8/1074.html?itemId=/content/journal/jmm/10.1099/jmm.0.008052-0&mimeType=html&fmt=ahah

References

  1. Anttila, V. J., Ruutu, P., Bondestam, S., Jansson, S. E., Nordling, S., Färkkilä, M., Sivonen, A., Castren, M. & Ruutu, T. ( 1994; ). Hepatosplenic yeast infection in patients with acute leukemia: a diagnostic problem. Clin Infect Dis 18, 979–981.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  2. Burt, S. A., van der Zee, R., Koets, A. P., de Graaff, A. M., van Knapen, F., Gaastra, W., Haagsman, H. P. & Veldhuizen, E. J. ( 2007; ). Carvacrol induces heat shock protein 60 and inhibits synthesis of flagellin in Escherichia coli O157 : H7. Appl Environ Microbiol 73, 4484–4490.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  3. Deng, X. L., Zhang, X. C., Zhang, F., Li, R. Y., Lu, H. J., He, W. Q., Liu, L. G., Fan, B. & Hu, X. Y. ( 2006; ). Cloning and sequencing of the GTP cyclohydrolase I function region of azole target enzyme gene in artificially induced resistant Candida albicans. Beijing Da Xue Xue Bao 38, 301–304.
    [Google Scholar]
  4. Didry, N., Dubreuil, L. & Pinkas, M. ( 1994; ). Activity of thymol, carvacrol, cinnamaldehyde and eugenol on oral bacteria. Pharm Acta Helv 69, 25–28.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  5. Giordani, R., Regli, P., Kaloustian, J., Mikaïl, C., Abou, L. & Portugal, H. ( 2004; ). Antifungal effect of various essential oils against Candida albicans. Potentiation of antifungal action of amphotericin B by essential oil from Thymus vulgaris. Phytother Res 18, 990–995.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  6. Greco, W. R., Bravo, G. & Parsons, J. C. ( 1995; ). The search for synergy: a critical review from a response surface perspective. Pharmacol Rev 47, 331–385.
    [Google Scholar]
  7. Guo, Q., Sun, S., Yu, J., Li, Y. & Cao, L. ( 2008; ). Synergistic activity of azoles with amiodarone against clinically resistant Candida albicans tested by chequerboard and time-kill methods. J Med Microbiol 57, 457–462.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  8. He, L., Mo, H., Hadisusilo, S., Qureshi, A. A. & Elson, C. E. ( 1997; ). Elson isoprenoids suppress the growth of murine B16 melanomas in vitro and in vivo. J Nutr 127, 668–674.
    [Google Scholar]
  9. Healing, T. D. & Oppenheim, B. A. ( 1990; ). Silver nitrate and thymol; two disinfectants effective against Legionella pneumophila. J Hosp Infect 15, 395–396.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  10. Koşar, M., Demirci, B., Demirci, F. & Başer, K. H. ( 2008; ). Effect of maturation on the composition and biological activity of the essential oil of a commercially important Satureja species from Turkey: Satureja cuneifolia Ten. (Lamiaceae). J Agric Food Chem 56, 2260–2265.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  11. Marchetti, O., Moreillon, P., Entenza, J. M., Vouillamoz, J., Glauser, M. P., Bille, J. & Sanglard, D. ( 2003; ). Fungicidal synergism of fluconazole and cyclosporine in Candida albicans is not dependent on multidrug efflux transporters encoded by the CDR1, CDR2, CaMDR1, and FLU1 genes. Antimicrob Agents Chemother 47, 1565–1570.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  12. NCCLS ( 1997; ). Reference Method for Broth Dilution Antifungal Susceptibility Testing of Yeasts, vol. 17, no. 9, approved standard M27-A. Wayne, PA: National Committee for Clinical and Laboratory Standards.
  13. Ogaard, B., Larsson, E., Glans, R., Henriksson, T. & Birkhed, D. ( 1997; ). Antimicrobial effect of a chlorhexidine-thymol varnish (cervitec) in orthodontic patients. A prospective, randomized clinical trial. J Orofac Orthop 58, 206–213.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  14. Pappas, P. G., Kauffman, C. A., Andes, D., Benjamin, D. K., Jr, Calandra, T. F., Edwards, J. E., Jr, Filler, S. G., Fisher, J. F., Kullberg, B.-J. & other authors ( 2009; ). Clinical practice guidelines for the management of candidiasis: 2009 update by the Infectious Diseases Society of America. Clin Infect Dis 48, 503–535.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  15. Prichard, M. N., Prichard, L. E. & Shipman, C., Jr ( 1993; ). Strategic design and three-dimensional analysis of antiviral drug combinations. Antimicrob Agents Chemother 37, 540–545.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  16. Quan, H., Cao, Y. Y., Xu, Z., Zhao, J. X., Gao, P. H., Qin, X. F. & Jiang, Y. Y. ( 2006; ). Potent in vitro synergism of fluconazole and berberine chloride against clinical isolates of Candida albicans resistant to fluconazole. Antimicrob Agents Chemother 50, 1096–1099.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  17. Sanglard, D., Ischer, F., Parkinson, T., Falconer, D. & Bille, J. ( 2003; ). Candida albicans mutations in the ergosterol biosynthetic pathway and resistance to several antifungal agents. Antimicrob Agents Chemother 47, 2404–2412.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  18. Shin, S. & Kim, J. H. ( 2004; ). Antifungal activities of essential oils from Thymus quinquecostatus and T. magnus. Planta Med 70, 1090–1092.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  19. Sun, S., Li, Y., Guo, Q., Shi, C., Yu, J. & Ma, L. ( 2008; ). In vitro interactions between tacrolimus and azoles against Candida albicans determined by different methods. Antimicrob Agents Chemother 52, 409–417.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  20. Tariq, V. N., Scott, E. M. & McCain, N. E. ( 1995; ). Use of decimal assay for additivity to demonstrate synergy in pair combinations of econazole, nikkomycin Z, and ibuprofen against Candida albicans in vitro. Antimicrob Agents Chemother 39, 2615–2619.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  21. Uppuluri, P., Nett, J., Heitman, J. & Andes, D. ( 2008; ). Synergistic effect of calcineurin inhibitors and fluconazole against Candida albicans biofilms. Antimicrob Agents Chemother 52, 1127–1132.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  22. Vanden Bossche, H. ( 1985; ). Biochemical targets for antifungal azole derivatives: hypothesis on the mode of action. Curr Top Med Mycol 1, 313–351.
    [Google Scholar]
  23. Viollon, C. & Chaumont, J. P. ( 1994; ). Antifungal properties of essential oils and their main components upon Cryptococcus neoformans. Mycopathologia 128, 151–153.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  24. White, T. C., Holleman, S., Dy, F., Mirels, L. F. & Stevens, D. A. ( 2002; ). Resistance mechanisms in clinical isolates of Candida albicans. Antimicrob Agents Chemother 46, 1704–1713.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
http://instance.metastore.ingenta.com/content/journal/jmm/10.1099/jmm.0.008052-0
Loading
/content/journal/jmm/10.1099/jmm.0.008052-0
Loading

Data & Media loading...

This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Approval was a Success
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error