1887

Abstract

is one of the leading nosocomial pathogens worldwide. Nosocomial infections caused by this organism are often hard to treat because of both the intrinsic resistance of the species (it has constitutive expression of AmpC -lactamase and efflux pumps, combined with a low permeability of the outer membrane), and its remarkable ability to acquire further resistance mechanisms to multiple groups of antimicrobial agents, including -lactams, aminoglycosides and fluoroquinolones. represents a phenomenon of bacterial resistance, since practically all known mechanisms of antimicrobial resistance can be seen in it: derepression of chromosomal AmpC cephalosporinase; production of plasmid or integron-mediated -lactamases from different molecular classes (carbenicillinases and extended-spectrum -lactamases belonging to class A, class D oxacillinases and class B carbapenem-hydrolysing enzymes); diminished outer membrane permeability (loss of OprD proteins); overexpression of active efflux systems with wide substrate profiles; synthesis of aminoglycoside-modifying enzymes (phosphoryltransferases, acetyltransferases and adenylyltransferases); and structural alterations of topoisomerases II and IV determining quinolone resistance. Worryingly, these mechanisms are often present simultaneously, thereby conferring multiresistant phenotypes. This review describes the known resistance mechanisms in to the most frequently administrated antipseudomonal antibiotics: -lactams, aminoglycosides and fluoroquinolones.

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2009-09-01
2019-08-20
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