1887

Abstract

SUMMARY

The succession of bacterial populations in the large bowel of seven breast-fed and seven formula-fed infants was examined during the first year of life. The composition of the intestinal microflora varied according to the infant’s diet. During the first week of life breast-fed and formula-fed infants were colonised by enterobacteria and enterococci followed by bifidobacteria, spp., clostridia and anaerobic streptococci. From week 4 until solid foods were given, breast-fed babies had a simple flora consisting of bifidobacteria and relatively few enterobacteria and enterococci. Formula-fed babies during the corresponding period were more often colonised by other anaerobes in addition to bifidobacteria and had higher counts of facultatively anaerobic bacteria. The introduction of solid food to the breast-fed infants caused a major disturbance in the microbial ecology of the large bowel as counts of enterobacteria and enterococci rose sharply and colonisation by spp., clostridia and anaerobic streptococci occurred. This was not observed when formula-fed infants began to take solids; instead, counts of facultative anaerobes remained high while colonisation by anaerobes other than bifidobacteria continued. At 12 months, the anaerobic bacterial populations of the large bowel of breast-fed and formula-fed infants were beginning to resemble those of adults in number and composition and there was a corresponding decrease in the number of facultative anaerobes. These changes are discussed in relation to changes in susceptibility to gastro-intestinal infection.

Loading

Article metrics loading...

/content/journal/jmm/10.1099/00222615-15-2-189
1982-05-01
2022-08-16
Loading full text...

Full text loading...

/deliver/fulltext/jmm/15/2/medmicro-15-2-189.html?itemId=/content/journal/jmm/10.1099/00222615-15-2-189&mimeType=html&fmt=ahah

References

  1. Albert M. J., Bhat P., Rajan D., Maiya P. P., Pereira S. M., Baker S. J. 1978; Faecal flora of South Indian infants and young children in health and with acute gastroenteritis. J. med. Microbiol. 11:137
    [Google Scholar]
  2. Bullen J. J., Rogers H. J., Griffiths E. 1974 Bacterial iron metabolism in infection and immunity. In Microbial iron metabolism, a comprehensive treatise edited by Nei-lands J.B. Academic Press; New York:517
    [Google Scholar]
  3. Bullen J. M., Rogers H. J., Leigh L. 1972; Iron-binding proteins in milk and resistance to Escherichia coli infection in infants. Br. med. J. 1:69
    [Google Scholar]
  4. Bullen C. L., Tearle P. V. 1976; Bifidobacteria in the intestinal tract of infants: an in vitro study. J. med. Microbiol. 9:335
    [Google Scholar]
  5. Bullen C. L., Tearle P. V., Stewart M. G. 1977; The effect of “humanised’ milks and supplemented breast feeding on the faecal flora of infants. J. med. Microbiol. 10:403
    [Google Scholar]
  6. Bullen C. L., Tearle P. V., Willis A. T. 1976; Bifidobacteria in the intestinal tract of infants: an in vivo study. J. med. Microbiol. 9:325
    [Google Scholar]
  7. Celesk R. A., Asano T., Wagner M. 1976; The size, pH and redox potential of the cecum in mice associated with various microbial floras. Proc. Soc. exp. Biol. Med. 151:260
    [Google Scholar]
  8. Crowther J. S. 1971; The transport and storage of faeces for bacteriological examination. J. appl. Bact. 34:477
    [Google Scholar]
  9. Ellis-Pegler R. B., Crabtree C., Lambert H. P. 1975; The faecal flora of children in the United Kingdom. J. Hyg., Camb. 75:135
    [Google Scholar]
  10. Ellis-Pegler R. B., Higgs R., Lambert H. P. 1979; Gastroenteritis in London and Jamaica: a clinical and bacteriological study. J. Hyg., Camb. 82:101
    [Google Scholar]
  11. Finegold S. M., Sugihara P. T., Sutter V. L. 1971 Use of selective media for isolation of anaerobes from humans. In Isolation of anaerobes, Society for Applied Bacteriology Technical Series no. 5 edited by Shapton D.A., Board R.G. Academic Press; London:99
    [Google Scholar]
  12. France G. L., Marmer D. J., Steele R. W. 1980; Breast-feeding and salmonella infection. Am. J. Dis. Child. 134:147
    [Google Scholar]
  13. Gordon J. E. 1971; Diarrheal disease of early childhood—worldwide scope of the problem. Ann. N.Y. Acad. Sci. 176:9
    [Google Scholar]
  14. Hewitt J. H., Rigby J. 1976; Effect of various milk feeds on numbers of Escherichia coli and Bifidobacterium in the stools of new-born infants. J. Hyg., Camb. 77:129
    [Google Scholar]
  15. Hill M. J. 1974; Bacteria and the etiology of colonic cancer. Cancer, Philad. 34:815
    [Google Scholar]
  16. Hill M. J., Drasar B. S. 1975; The normal colonic bacterial flora. Gut 16:318
    [Google Scholar]
  17. Holdeman L. V., Moore W. E. C. 1975; Anaerobe laboratory manual, Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University Anaerobe Laboratory, Blacksburg.
  18. James J. W. 1972; Longitudinal study of the morbidity of diarrheal and respiratory infections in malnourished children. Am. J. clin. Nutr. 25:690
    [Google Scholar]
  19. Kanaaneh H. 1972; The relationship of bottle feeding to malnutrition and gastroenteritis in a pre-industrial setting. J. trop. Pediat. 18:302
    [Google Scholar]
  20. Larsen S. A., Homer D. R. 1978; Relation of breast versus bottle feeding to hospitalization for gastroenteritis in a middleclass United States population. J. Pediat. 92:417
    [Google Scholar]
  21. Leclerc H., Moriamez J. C. 1980; Étude quantitative de la flore fécale de l’adulte et du nourrisson alimenté artificiellement. Path. Biol., Paris 28:217
    [Google Scholar]
  22. Lee A., Gordon J., Lee C. J., Dubos R. 1971; The mouse intestinal microflora with emphasis on the strict anaerobes. J. exp. Med. 133:339
    [Google Scholar]
  23. Mata L. J., Urrutia J. J. 1971; Intestinal colonization of breast-fed children in a rural area of low socioeconomic level. Ann. N. Y. Acad. Sci. 176:93
    [Google Scholar]
  24. Miles A. A., Misra S. S., Irwin J. O. 1938; The estimation of the bactericidal power of blood. J. Hyg., Camb. 38:732
    [Google Scholar]
  25. Mitsuoka T., Hayakawa K. 1972; The faecal flora of man I. Communication: the composition of the faecal flora of different age groups. Zentbl. Bakt. ParasitKde., I. Abt. Orig. A 223:333 in German
    [Google Scholar]
  26. Mitsuoka T., Hayakawa K., Kimura N. 1975; The faecal flora of man. III. Communication: the composition of lactobacillus flora of different age groups. Zentbl. Bakt. ParasitKde., I. Abt. Orig. A 232:499 in German
    [Google Scholar]
  27. Mitsuoka T., Kaneuchi C. 1977; Ecology of the bifidobacteria. Am. J. clin. Nutr. 30:1799
    [Google Scholar]
  28. Moore W. E. C, Cato E. P., Holdeman L. V. 1978; Some current concepts in intestinal bacteriology. Am. J. clin. Nutr. 31:S33
    [Google Scholar]
  29. Plank S. J., Milanesi M. L. 1973; Infant feeding and infant mortality in rural Chile. Bull. Wld. Hlth. Org. 48:203
    [Google Scholar]
  30. Stark P. L., Lee A. 1982; The role of volatile fatty acids in the microbial ecology of the large bowel of breast and formula-fed infants (submitted for publication).
  31. van der Waaij D. 1979; The colonization resistance of the digestive tract in man and animals. In Clinical and experimental gnotobiosis edited by Fliedner T.M., Heit H., Nethammer D., Pflieger H. Fischer Verlag, Stuttgart. Zentbl. Bakt. ParasitKde 1 Abt. suppl. 7
    [Google Scholar]
  32. Wheatley D. 1968; Incidence and treatment of infantile gastro-enteritis in general practice. Archs Dis. Childh. 43:53
    [Google Scholar]
  33. Willis A. T., Hobbs G. 1959; Some new media for the isolation and identification of Clostridia. J. Path. Bact. 77:511
    [Google Scholar]
http://instance.metastore.ingenta.com/content/journal/jmm/10.1099/00222615-15-2-189
Loading
/content/journal/jmm/10.1099/00222615-15-2-189
Loading

Data & Media loading...

Most cited this month Most Cited RSS feed

This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Approval was a Success
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error