1887

Abstract

(BKV) is highly prevalent in the human population, infecting children without obvious symptoms and persisting in the kidney in a latent state. In immunosuppressed patients, BKV is reactivated and excreted in urine. BKV isolates worldwide are classified into four serologically distinct subtypes, I–IV, with subtype I being the most frequently detected. Furthermore, subtype I is subdivided into subgroups based on genomic variations. In this study, the distribution patterns of the subtypes and subgroups of BKV were compared among four patient populations with various immunosuppressive states and of various ethnic backgrounds: (A) Finnish renal-transplant recipients; (B) Irish/English haematopoietic stem-cell transplant recipients with and without haemorrhagic cystitis; (C) Japanese renal-transplant recipients; and (D) Japanese bone-marrow transplant recipients. The typing sequences (287 bp) of BKV in population A were determined in this study; those in populations B–D have been reported previously. These sequences were subjected to phylogenetic and single nucleotide polymorphism analyses. Based on the results of these analyses, the BKV isolates in the four patient populations were classified into subtypes and subgroups. The incidence of subtype IV varied significantly among patient populations. Furthermore, the incidence of subgroup Ib-2 within subtype I was high in populations A and B, whereas that of Ic was high in populations C and D (<0.01). These results suggest that subgroup Ib-2 is widespread among Europeans, whereas Ic is unique to north-east Asians. Furthermore, a phylogenetic analysis based on complete BKV DNA sequences supported the hypothesis that there is geographical separation of European and Asian BKV strains.

Loading

Article metrics loading...

/content/journal/jgv/10.1099/vir.0.82266-0
2006-11-01
2019-11-13
Loading full text...

Full text loading...

/deliver/fulltext/jgv/87/11/3201.html?itemId=/content/journal/jgv/10.1099/vir.0.82266-0&mimeType=html&fmt=ahah

References

  1. Agostini, H. T., Brubaker, G. R., Shao, J., Levin, A., Ryschkewitsch, C. F., Blattner, W. A. & Stoner, G. L. ( 1995; ). BK virus and a new type of JC virus excreted by HIV-1 positive patients in rural Tanzania. Arch Virol 140, 1919–1934.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  2. Agostini, H. T., Jobes, D. V. & Stoner, G. L. ( 2001; ). Molecular evolution and epidemiology of JC virus. In Human Polyomaviruses: Molecular and Clinical Perspectives, pp. 491–526. Edited by K. Khalili & G. L. Stoner. New York: Wiley.
  3. Baksh, F. K., Finkelstein, S. D., Swalsky, P. A., Stoner, G. L., Ryschkewitsch, C. F. & Randhawa, P. ( 2001; ). Molecular genotyping of BK and JC viruses in human polyomavirus-associated interstitial nephritis after renal transplantation. Am J Kidney Dis 38, 354–365.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  4. Cantalupo, P., Doering, A., Sullivan, C. S., Pal, A., Peden, K. W. C., Lewis, A. M. & Pipas, J. M. ( 2005; ). Complete nucleotide sequence of polyomavirus SA12. J Virol 79, 13094–13104.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  5. Carr, M. J., McCormack, G. P., Mutton, K. J. & Crowley, B. ( 2006; ). Unique BK virus non-coding control region (NCCR) variants in hematopoietic stem cell transplant recipients with and without hemorrhagic cystitis. J Med Virol 78, 485–493.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  6. Chen, Y., Sharp, P. M., Fowkes, M., Kocher, O., Joseph, J. T. & Koralnik, I. J. ( 2004; ). Analysis of 15 novel full-length BK virus sequences from three individuals: evidence of a high intra-strain genetic diversity. J Gen Virol 85, 2651–2663.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  7. Chen, Q., Zheng, H.-Y., Zhong, S. & 10 other authors ( 2006; ). Subtype IV of the BK polyomavirus is prevalent in East Asia. Arch Virol (in press). doi:10.1007/s00705-006-0814-z
    [Google Scholar]
  8. Chesters, P. M., Heritage, J. & McCance, D. J. ( 1983; ). Persistence of DNA sequences of BK virus and JC virus in normal human tissues and in diseased tissues. J Infect Dis 147, 676–684.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  9. Di Taranto, C., Pietropaolo, V., Orsi, G. B., Jin, L., Sinibaldi, L. & Degener, A. M. ( 1997; ). Detection of BK polyomavirus genotypes in healthy and HIV-positive children. Eur J Epidemiol 13, 653–657.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  10. Felsenstein, J. ( 1985; ). Confidence limits on phylogenies: an approach using the bootstrap. Evolution 39, 783–791.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  11. Heritage, J., Chesters, P. M. & McCance, D. J. ( 1981; ). The persistence of papovavirus BK DNA sequences in normal human renal tissue. J Med Virol 8, 143–150.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  12. Hillis, D. M. & Bull, J. J. ( 1993; ). An empirical test of bootstrapping as a method for assessing confidence in phylogenetic analysis. Syst Biol 42, 182–192.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  13. Jeanmougin, F., Thompson, J. D., Gouy, M., Higgins, D. G. & Gibson, T. J. ( 1998; ). Multiple sequence alignment with Clustal X. Trends Biochem Sci 23, 403–405.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  14. Jin, L. ( 1993; ). Rapid genomic typing of BK virus directly from clinical specimens. Mol Cell Probes 7, 331–334.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  15. Jin, L., Gibson, P. E., Knowles, W. A. & Clewley, J. P. ( 1993a; ). BK virus antigenic variants: sequence analysis within the capsid VP1 epitope. J Med Virol 39, 50–56.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  16. Jin, L., Gibson, P. E., Booth, J. C. & Clewley, J. P. ( 1993b; ). Genomic typing of BK virus in clinical specimens by direct sequencing of polymerase chain reaction products. J Med Virol 41, 11–17.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  17. Jin, L., Pietropaolo, V., Booth, J. C., Ward, K. H. & Brown, D. W. ( 1995; ). Prevalence and distribution of BK virus subtypes in healthy people and immunocompromised patients detected by PCR-restriction enzyme analysis. Clin Diagn Virol 3, 285–295.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  18. Kimura, M. ( 1980; ). A simple method for estimating evolutionary rates of base substitutions through comparative studies of nucleotide sequences. J Mol Evol 16, 111–120.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  19. Kitamura, T., Aso, Y., Kuniyoshi, N., Hara, K. & Yogo, Y. ( 1990; ). High incidence of urinary JC virus excretion in nonimmunosuppressed older patients. J Infect Dis 161, 1128–1133.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  20. Knowles, W. A. ( 2001; ). The epidemiology of BK virus and the occurrence of antigenic and genomic subtypes. In Human Polyomaviruses: Molecular and Clinical Perspectives, pp. 527–559. Edited by K. Khalili & G. L. Stoner. New York: Wiley.
  21. Moens, U. & Rekvig, O. P. ( 2001; ). Molecular biology of BK virus and clinical and basic aspects of BK virus renal infection. In Human Polyomaviruses: Molecular and Clinical Perspectives, pp. 359–408. Edited by K. Khalili & G. L. Stoner. New York: Wiley.
  22. Nishimoto, Y., Takasaka, T., Hasegawa, M., Zheng, H. Y., Qin, C., Sugimoto, C., Kitamura, T. & Yogo, Y. ( 2006; ). Evolution of BK virus based on complete genome data. J Mol Evol (in press). doi:10.1007/s00239-005-0092-5
    [Google Scholar]
  23. Perrière, G. & Gouy, M. ( 1996; ). WWW-Query: an on-line retrieval system for biological sequence banks. Biochimie 78, 364–369.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  24. Ruhlen, M. ( 1987; ). A Guide to the World's Languages, vol. 1. Stanford: Stanford University Press.
  25. Saitou, N. & Nei, M. ( 1987; ). The neighbor-joining method: a new method for reconstructing phylogenetic trees. Mol Biol Evol 4, 406–425.
    [Google Scholar]
  26. Seif, I., Khoury, G. & Dhar, R. ( 1979; ). The genome of human papovavirus BKV. Cell 18, 963–977.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  27. Sugimoto, C., Hara, K., Taguchi, F. & Yogo, Y. ( 1990; ). Regulatory DNA sequence conserved in the course of BK virus evolution. J Mol Evol 31, 485–492.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  28. Sugimoto, C., Kitamura, T., Guo, J. & 16 other authors ( 1997; ). Typing of urinary JC virus DNA offers a novel means of tracing human migrations. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 94, 9191–9196.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  29. Takasaka, T., Goya, N., Tokumoto, T. & 14 other authors ( 2004; ). Subtypes of BK virus prevalent in Japan and variation in their transcriptional control region. J Gen Virol 85, 2821–2827.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  30. Tavis, J. E., Walker, D. L., Gardner, S. D. & Frisque, R. J. ( 1989; ). Nucleotide sequence of the human polyomavirus AS virus, an antigenic variant of BK virus. J Virol 63, 901–911.
    [Google Scholar]
  31. Yang, R. C. & Wu, R. ( 1979; ). BK virus DNA: complete nucleotide sequence of a human tumor virus. Science 206, 456–462.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  32. Yogo, Y., Sugimoto, C., Zheng, H.-Y., Ikegaya, H., Takasaka, T. & Kitamura, T. ( 2004; ). JC virus genotyping offers a new paradigm in the study of human populations. Rev Med Virol 14, 179–191.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
http://instance.metastore.ingenta.com/content/journal/jgv/10.1099/vir.0.82266-0
Loading
/content/journal/jgv/10.1099/vir.0.82266-0
Loading

Data & Media loading...

Most Cited This Month

This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Approval was a Success
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error