1887

Abstract

There are marked differences in the clinical expression of diseases associated with porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2) in the field. The objective of this study was to compare the sequences and pathogenicity of PCV2 isolates from field cases with and without PCV2-associated lesions. Forty-two specific-pathogen-free (SPF) pigs were assigned randomly to three groups of 14 pigs each. At 7 weeks of age, group 1 pigs were mock-inoculated with saline, group 2 pigs were inoculated with PCV2-4838 (isolated from a pig with no evidence of PCV2-associated lymphoid lesions) and group 3 pigs were inoculated with PCV2-40895 (isolated from a pig with PCV2-associated lymphoid lesions and disease). The PCV2-4838 and PCV2-40895 isolates shared approximately 98.9 % nucleotide sequence identity across the entire genome. A total of nine amino acid changes in ORF2 and two amino acid changes in ORF1 were identified between the two isolates. PCV2-4838-inoculated pigs had significantly more genomic copy numbers of PCV2 in their sera at 7 days post-inoculation (p.i.) (<0.0001) and significantly fewer genomic copy numbers at 14, 21 and 28 days p.i. (<0.05) compared with pigs inoculated with the PCV2-40895 isolate. Microscopic lesions in lymphoid tissues were significantly less severe (<0.05) and the amount of PCV2 antigen associated with these lesions was significantly lower (<0.05) in pigs inoculated with PCV2-4838. The results of this study suggest that PCV2 isolates from the USA differ in virulence in an SPF pig model.

Loading

Article metrics loading...

/content/journal/jgv/10.1099/vir.0.82099-0
2006-10-01
2020-01-27
Loading full text...

Full text loading...

/deliver/fulltext/jgv/87/10/2923.html?itemId=/content/journal/jgv/10.1099/vir.0.82099-0&mimeType=html&fmt=ahah

References

  1. Allan, G. M. & Ellis, J. A. ( 2000; ). Porcine circoviruses: a review. J Vet Diagn Invest 12, 3–14.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  2. Allan, G. M., McNeilly, F., Kennedy, S., Daft, B., Clarke, E. G., Ellis, J. A., Haines, D. M., Meehan, B. M. & Adair, B. M. ( 1998; ). Isolation of porcine circovirus-like viruses from pigs with a wasting disease in the USA and Europe. J Vet Diagn Invest 10, 3–10.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  3. Allan, G. M., Kennedy, S., McNeilly, F., Foster, J. C., Ellis, J. A., Krakowka, S. J., Meehan, B. M. & Adair, B. M. ( 1999; ). Experimental reproduction of severe wasting disease by co-infection of pigs with porcine circovirus and porcine parvovirus. J Comp Pathol 121, 1–11.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  4. Allan, G. M., McNeilly, F., Ellis, J., Krakowka, S., Meehan, B., McNair, I., Walker, I. & Kennedy, S. ( 2000a; ). Experimental infection of colostrum deprived piglets with porcine circovirus 2 (PCV2) and porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) potentiates PCV2 replication. Arch Virol 145, 2421–2429.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  5. Allan, G. M., McNeilly, F., Kennedy, S., Meehan, B., Ellis, J. & Krakowka, S. ( 2000b; ). Immunostimulation, PCV-2 and PMWS. Vet Rec 147, 170–171.
    [Google Scholar]
  6. Bereiter, M., Young, T. F., Joo, H. S. & Ross, R. F. ( 1990; ). Evaluation of the ELISA and comparison of the complement fixation test and radial immunodiffusion enzyme assay for detection of antibodies against Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae in swine serum. Vet Microbiol 25, 177–192.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  7. Cheung, A. K. ( 2003; ). Comparative analysis of the transcriptional patterns of pathogenic and nonpathogenic porcine circoviruses. Virology 310, 41–49.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  8. Choi, J., Stevenson, G. W., Kiupel, M., Harrach, B., Anothayanontha, L., Kanitz, C. L. & Mittal, S. K. ( 2002; ). Sequence analysis of old and new strains of porcine circovirus associated with congenital tremors in pigs and their comparison with strains involved with postweaning multisystemic wasting syndrome. Can J Vet Res 66, 217–224.
    [Google Scholar]
  9. De Boisséson, C., Béven, V., Bigarré, L., Thiéry, R., Rose, N., Eveno, E., Madec, F. & Jestin, A. ( 2004; ). Molecular characterization of Porcine circovirus type 2 isolates from post-weaning multisystemic wasting syndrome-affected and non-affected pigs. J Gen Virol 85, 293–304.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  10. Ellis, J., Hassard, L., Clark, E. & 9 other authors ( 1998; ). Isolation of circovirus from lesions of pigs with postweaning multisystemic wasting syndrome. Can Vet J 39, 44–51.
    [Google Scholar]
  11. Farnham, M. W., Choi, Y. K., Goyal, S. M. & Joo, H. S. ( 2003; ). Isolation and characterization of porcine circovirus type-2 from sera of stillborn fetuses. Can J Vet Res 67, 108–113.
    [Google Scholar]
  12. Fenaux, M., Halbur, P. G., Gill, M., Toth, T. E. & Meng, X.-J. ( 2000; ). Genetic characterization of type 2 porcine circovirus (PCV-2) from pigs with postweaning multisystemic wasting syndrome in different geographic regions of North America and development of a differential PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism assay to detect and differentiate between infections with PCV-1 and PCV-2. J Clin Microbiol 38, 2494–2503.
    [Google Scholar]
  13. Fenaux, M., Halbur, P. G., Haqshenas, G., Royer, R., Thomas, P., Nawagitgul, P., Gill, M., Toth, T. E. & Meng, X.-J. ( 2002; ). Cloned genomic DNA of type 2 porcine circovirus is infectious when injected directly into the liver and lymph nodes of pigs: characterization of clinical disease, virus distribution, and pathologic lesions. J Virol 76, 541–551.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  14. Fenaux, M., Opriessnig, T., Halbur, P. G. & Meng, X.-J. ( 2003; ). Immunogenicity and pathogenicity of chimeric infectious DNA clones of pathogenic porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2) and nonpathogenic PCV1 in weanling pigs. J Virol 77, 11232–11243.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  15. Fenaux, M., Opriessnig, T., Halbur, P. G., Elvinger, F. & Meng, X.-J. ( 2004a; ). A chimeric porcine circovirus (PCV) with the immunogenic capsid gene of the pathogenic PCV type 2 (PCV2) cloned into the genomic backbone of the nonpathogenic PCV1 induces protective immunity against PCV2 infection in pigs. J Virol 78, 6297–6303.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  16. Fenaux, M., Opriessnig, T., Halbur, P. G., Elvinger, F. & Meng, X.-J. ( 2004b; ). Two amino acid mutations in the capsid protein of type 2 porcine circovirus (PCV2) enhanced PCV2 replication in vitro and attenuated the virus in vivo. J Virol 78, 13440–13446.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  17. Grierson, S. S., King, D. P., Wellenberg, G. J. & Banks, M. ( 2004; ). Genome sequence analysis of 10 Dutch porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV-2) isolates from a PMWS case-control study. Res Vet Sci 77, 265–268.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  18. Haines, D. M., Waters, E. H. & Clark, E. G. ( 1993; ). Immunohistochemical detection of swine influenza A virus in formalin-fixed and paraffin-embedded tissues. Can J Vet Res 57, 33–36.
    [Google Scholar]
  19. Halbur, P. G., Paul, P. S., Frey, M. L., Landgraf, J., Eernisse, K., Meng, X. J., Lum, M. A., Andrews, J. J. & Rathje, J. A. ( 1995; ). Comparison of the pathogenicity of two US porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus isolates with that of the Lelystad virus. Vet Pathol 32, 648–660.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  20. Hamel, A. L., Lin, L. L. & Nayar, G. P. S. ( 1998; ). Nucleotide sequence of porcine circovirus associated with postweaning multisystemic wasting syndrome. J Virol 72, 5262–5267.
    [Google Scholar]
  21. Harding, J. C. S. & Clark, E. G. ( 1997; ). Recognizing and diagnosing postweaning multisystemic wasting syndrome (PMWS). J Swine Health Prod 5, 201–203.
    [Google Scholar]
  22. Harms, P. A., Sorden, S. D., Halbur, P. G., Bolin, S. R., Lager, K. M., Morozov, I. & Paul, P. S. ( 2001; ). Experimental reproduction of severe disease in CD/CD pigs concurrently infected with type 2 porcine circovirus and porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus. Vet Pathol 38, 528–539.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  23. Harms, P. A., Halbur, P. G. & Sorden, S. D. ( 2002; ). Three cases of porcine respiratory disease complex associated with porcine circovirus type 2 infection. J Swine Health Prod 10, 27–30.
    [Google Scholar]
  24. Kennedy, S., Moffett, D., McNeilly, F., Meehan, B., Ellis, J., Krakowka, S. & Allan, G. M. ( 2000; ). Reproduction of lesions of postweaning multisystemic wasting syndrome by infection of conventional pigs with porcine circovirus type 2 alone or in combination with porcine parvovirus. J Comp Pathol 122, 9–24.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  25. Kim, J., Ha, Y., Jung, K., Choi, C. & Chae, C. ( 2004; ). Enteritis associated with porcine circovirus 2 in pigs. Can J Vet Res 68, 218–221.
    [Google Scholar]
  26. Krakowka, S., Ellis, J. A., Meehan, B., Kennedy, S., McNeilly, F. & Allan, G. ( 2000; ). Viral wasting syndrome of swine: experimental reproduction of postweaning multisystemic wasting syndrome in gnotobiotic swine by coinfection with porcine circovirus 2 and porcine parvovirus. Vet Pathol 37, 254–263.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  27. Larochelle, R., Magar, R. & D'Allaire, S. ( 2002; ). Genetic characterization and phylogenetic analysis of porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2) strains from cases presenting various clinical conditions. Virus Res 90, 101–112.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  28. Larochelle, R., Magar, R. & D'Allaire, S. ( 2003; ). Comparative serology and virologic study of commercial swine herds with and without postweaning multisystemic wasting syndrome. Can J Vet Res 67, 114–120.
    [Google Scholar]
  29. Liu, J., Chen, I. & Kwang, J. ( 2005; ). Characterization of a previously unidentified viral protein in porcine circovirus type 2-infected cells and its role in virus-induced apoptosis. J Virol 79, 8262–8274.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  30. Magar, R., Müller, P. & Larochelle, R. ( 2000; ). Retrospective serological survey of antibodies to porcine circovirus type 1 and type 2. Can J Vet Res 64, 184–186.
    [Google Scholar]
  31. Mahé, D., Blanchard, P., Truong, C., Arnauld, C., Le Cann, P., Cariolet, R., Madec, F., Albina, E. & Jestin, A. ( 2000; ). Differential recognition of ORF2 protein from type 1 and type 2 porcine circoviruses and identification of immunorelevant epitopes. J Gen Virol 81, 1815–1824.
    [Google Scholar]
  32. Mankertz, A., Mankertz, J., Wolf, K. & Buhk, H.-J. ( 1998; ). Identification of a protein essential for replication of porcine circovirus. J Gen Virol 79, 381–384.
    [Google Scholar]
  33. Mankertz, A., Domingo, M., Folch, J. M., LeCann, P., Jestin, A., Segalés, J., Chmielewicz, B., Plana-Durán, J. & Soike, D. ( 2000; ). Characterisation of PCV-2 isolates from Spain, Germany and France. Virus Res 66, 65–77.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  34. Meehan, B. M., McNeilly, F., Todd, D. & 7 other authors ( 1998; ). Characterization of novel circovirus DNAs associated with wasting syndromes in pigs. J Gen Virol 79, 2171–2179.
    [Google Scholar]
  35. Meehan, B. M., McNeilly, F., McNair, I., Walker, I., Ellis, J. A., Krakowka, S. & Allan, G. M. ( 2001; ). Isolation and characterization of porcine circovirus 2 from cases of sow abortion and porcine dermatitis and nephropathy syndrome. Arch Virol 146, 835–842.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  36. Meerts, P., Misinzo, G., McNeilly, F. & Nauwynck, H. J. ( 2005; ). Replication kinetics of different porcine circovirus 2 strains in PK-15 cells, fetal cardiomyocytes and macrophages. Arch Virol 150, 427–441.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  37. Mengeling, W. L., Ridpath, J. F. & Vorwald, A. C. ( 1988; ). Size and antigenic comparisons among the structural proteins of selected autonomous parvoviruses. J Gen Virol 69, 825–837.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  38. Morozov, I., Sirinarumitr, T., Sorden, S. D., Halbur, P. G., Morgan, M. G., Yoon, K.-J. & Paul, P. S. ( 1998; ). Detection of a novel strain of porcine circovirus in pigs with postweaning multisystemic wasting syndrome. J Clin Microbiol 36, 2535–2541.
    [Google Scholar]
  39. Nawagitgul, P., Morozov, I., Bolin, S. R., Harms, P. A., Sorden, S. D. & Paul, P. S. ( 2000; ). Open reading frame 2 of porcine circovirus type 2 encodes a major capsid protein. J Gen Virol 81, 2281–2287.
    [Google Scholar]
  40. Nawagitgul, P., Harms, P. A., Morozov, I., Thacker, B. J., Sorden, S. D., Lekcharoensuk, C. & Paul, P. S. ( 2002; ). Modified indirect porcine circovirus (PCV) type 2-based and recombinant capsid protein (ORF2)-based enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays for detection of antibodies to PCV. Clin Diagn Lab Immunol 9, 33–40.
    [Google Scholar]
  41. Opriessnig, T., Yu, S., Gallup, J. M. & 9 other authors ( 2003; ). Effect of vaccination with selective bacterins on conventional pigs infected with type 2 porcine circovirus. Vet Pathol 40, 521–529.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  42. Opriessnig, T., Thacker, E. L., Yu, S., Fenaux, M., Meng, X.-J. & Halbur, P. G. ( 2004a; ). Experimental reproduction of postweaning multisystemic wasting syndrome in pigs by dual-infection with Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae and porcine circovirus type 2. Vet Pathol 41, 624–640.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  43. Opriessnig, T., Fenaux, M., Yu, S. & 8 other authors ( 2004b; ). Effect of porcine parvovirus vaccination on the development of PMWS in segregated early weaned pigs coinfected with type 2 porcine circovirus and porcine parvovirus. Vet Microbiol 98, 209–220.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  44. Opriessnig, T., Yu, S., Thacker, E. L. & Halbur, P. G. ( 2004c; ). Derivation of porcine circovirus type 2-negative pigs from positive breeding herds. J Swine Health Prod 12, 186–191.
    [Google Scholar]
  45. Opriessnig, T., Fenaux, M., Thomas, P., Hoogland, M. J., Rothschild, M. F., Meng, X.-J. & Halbur, P. G. ( 2006a; ). Evidence of breed-dependent differences in susceptibility to porcine circovirus type 2 associated disease and lesions. Vet Pathol 43, 281–293.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  46. Opriessnig, T., Halbur, P. G., Yu, S., Thacker, E. L., Fenaux, M. & Meng, X.-J. ( 2006b; ). Effects of the timing of the administration of Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae bacterin on the development of lesions associated with porcine circovirus type 2. Vet Rec 158, 149–154.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  47. Pogranichniy, R. M., Yoon, K. J., Harms, P. A., Sorden, S. D. & Daniels, M. ( 2002; ). Case-control study on the association of porcine circovirus type 2 and other swine viral pathogens with postweaning multisystemic wasting syndrome. J Vet Diagn Invest 14, 449–456.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  48. Rosell, C., Segalés, J., Ramos-Vara, J. A., Folch, J. M., Rodríguez-Arrioja, G. M., Duran, C. O., Balasch, M., Plana-Durán, J. & Domingo, M. ( 2000; ). Identification of porcine circovirus in tissues of pigs with porcine dermatitis and nephropathy syndrome. Vet Rec 146, 40–43.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  49. Rovira, A., Balasch, M., Segalés, J., García, L., Plana-Durán, J., Rosell, C., Ellerbrok, H., Mankertz, A. & Domingo, M. ( 2002; ). Experimental inoculation of conventional pigs with porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus and porcine circovirus 2. J Virol 76, 3232–3239.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  50. Sorden, S. D. ( 2000; ). Update on porcine circovirus and postweaning multisystemic wasting syndrome (PMWS). Swine Health Prod 8, 133–136.
    [Google Scholar]
  51. Sorden, S. D., Harms, P. A., Nawagitgul, P., Cavanaugh, D. & Paul, P. S. ( 1999; ). Development of a polyclonal-antibody-based immunohistochemical method for the detection of type 2 porcine circovirus in formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissue. J Vet Diagn Invest 11, 528–530.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  52. Tischer, I., Rasch, R. & Tochtermann, G. ( 1974; ). Characterization of papovavirus- and picornavirus-like particles in permanent pig kidney cell lines. Zentralbl Bakteriol [orig A] 226, 153–167.
    [Google Scholar]
  53. Tischer, I., Glederblom, H., Vettermann, W. & Koch, M. A. ( 1982; ). A very small porcine virus with circular single-stranded DNA. Nature 295, 64–66.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  54. Todd, D., Scott, A. N., Ball, N. W., Borghmans, B. J. & Adair, B. M. ( 2002; ). Molecular basis of the attenuation exhibited by molecularly cloned highly passaged chicken anemia virus isolates. J Virol 76, 8472–8474.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  55. West, K. H., Bystrom, J. M., Wojnarowicz, C. & 10 other authors ( 1999; ). Myocarditis and abortion associated with intrauterine infection of sows with porcine cirocovirus 2. J Vet Diagn Invest 11, 530–532.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  56. Yamaguchi, S., Imada, T., Kaji, N., Mase, M., Tsukamoto, K., Tanimura, N. & Yuasa, N. ( 2001; ). Identification of a genetic determinant of pathogenicity in chicken anaemia virus. J Gen Virol 82, 1233–1238.
    [Google Scholar]
http://instance.metastore.ingenta.com/content/journal/jgv/10.1099/vir.0.82099-0
Loading
/content/journal/jgv/10.1099/vir.0.82099-0
Loading

Data & Media loading...

Most cited articles

This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Approval was a Success
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error