1887

Abstract

Formaldehyde is a highly toxic chemical common in industrial effluents, and it is also an intermediate in bacterial metabolism of one-carbon growth substrates, although its role as a bacterial growth substrate per se has not been extensively reported. This study investigated two highly formaldehyde-resistant formaldehyde utilizers, strains BIP and ROS1; the former strain has been used for industrial remediation of formaldehyde-containing effluents. The two strains were shown by means of 16S rRNA characterization to be closely related members of the genus . Both strains were able to use formaldehyde, methanol and a range of multicarbon compounds as their principal growth substrate. Growth on formaldehyde was possible up to a concentration of at least 58 mM, and survival at up to 100 mM was possible after stepwise acclimatization by growth at increasing concentrations of formaldehyde. At such high concentrations of formaldehyde, the cultures underwent a period of formaldehyde removal without growth before the formaldehyde concentration fell below 60 mM, and growth could resume. Two-dimensional electrophoresis and MS characterization of formaldehyde-induced proteins in strain BIP revealed that the pathways of formaldehyde metabolism, and adaptations to methylotrophic growth, were very similar to those seen in the well-characterized methanol-utilizing methylotroph AM1. Thus, it appears that many of the changes in protein expression that allow strain BIP to grow using high formaldehyde concentrations are associated with expression of the same enzymes used by AM1 to process formaldehyde as a metabolic intermediate during growth on methanol.

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2005-08-01
2019-11-21
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Silver-stained 2DE of the soluble fraction of strain BIP grown on: (a) 20 mM formaldehyde; (b) 20 mM succinate; (c) ≤1 mM formaldehyde. SF1-8 represent protein spots that were present predominantly in the soluble fraction (Table 1 of main paper) ( PDF file, 181 kb). Silver-stained 2DE of the membrane fraction of strain BIP grown on: (a) 20 mM formaldehyde; (b) 20 mM succinate; (c) ≤1 mM formaldehyde. MF1-4 represent protein spots that were present predominantly in the membrane fraction (Table 1 of main paper) ( PDF file, 164 kb). Coomassie blue-stained 2DE of samples from the membrane fraction of strain BIP grown on (a) 20 and (b) ≤1 mM formaldehyde. The proteins identified in this study are circled in red: Spot MF9 was present only at 20 mM formaldehyde, while spots HM2, HM3 and HM5 were present only at =1 mM formaldehyde (Table 1 of main paper) ( PDF file, 7 kb).

PDF

Silver-stained 2DE of the soluble fraction of strain BIP grown on: (a) 20 mM formaldehyde; (b) 20 mM succinate; (c) ≤1 mM formaldehyde. SF1-8 represent protein spots that were present predominantly in the soluble fraction (Table 1 of main paper) ( PDF file, 181 kb). Silver-stained 2DE of the membrane fraction of strain BIP grown on: (a) 20 mM formaldehyde; (b) 20 mM succinate; (c) ≤1 mM formaldehyde. MF1-4 represent protein spots that were present predominantly in the membrane fraction (Table 1 of main paper) ( PDF file, 164 kb). Coomassie blue-stained 2DE of samples from the membrane fraction of strain BIP grown on (a) 20 and (b) ≤1 mM formaldehyde. The proteins identified in this study are circled in red: Spot MF9 was present only at 20 mM formaldehyde, while spots HM2, HM3 and HM5 were present only at =1 mM formaldehyde (Table 1 of main paper) ( PDF file, 7 kb).

PDF

Silver-stained 2DE of the soluble fraction of strain BIP grown on: (a) 20 mM formaldehyde; (b) 20 mM succinate; (c) ≤1 mM formaldehyde. SF1-8 represent protein spots that were present predominantly in the soluble fraction (Table 1 of main paper) ( PDF file, 181 kb). Silver-stained 2DE of the membrane fraction of strain BIP grown on: (a) 20 mM formaldehyde; (b) 20 mM succinate; (c) ≤1 mM formaldehyde. MF1-4 represent protein spots that were present predominantly in the membrane fraction (Table 1 of main paper) ( PDF file, 164 kb). Coomassie blue-stained 2DE of samples from the membrane fraction of strain BIP grown on (a) 20 and (b) ≤1 mM formaldehyde. The proteins identified in this study are circled in red: Spot MF9 was present only at 20 mM formaldehyde, while spots HM2, HM3 and HM5 were present only at =1 mM formaldehyde (Table 1 of main paper) ( PDF file, 7 kb).

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