1887

Abstract

Short nucleotide sequence inserts within the signal (s) and mid (m) regions of the vacuolating cytotoxin gene () of provide the basis for defining the allelic forms widely used for strain typing and as markers for toxin functionality and severity of interactions with host gastric epithelial cells. Here 484 signal region and 411 mid-region sequences (new and from public databases) from 32 countries were analysed to determine the effect of geographical location on insert diversity, which is currently undefined. Short (27 bp) inserts of 52 mol% G+C from 201 sequences (98 %) of the s2 allelic family encoded a highly conserved nine amino acid sequence irrespective of geographical origin. The longer (75 bp) mid-region insert of 38 mol% G+C in 255 sequences of the m2 allelic family was more diverse and represented by 23 peptide variants, with one predominant sequence (MRI type 4) representing 62 % of inserts. Mid-region inserts were widespread throughout European/North American (Western) sequences in the dataset whereas a lower insert frequency was a geographical feature of East Asian sequences. Each insert was preceded by an associated conserved motif that provided a marker of the insertion sites within A, and facilitated identification of the Chinese m2b genotype. It is concluded that the observed sequence conservation supports the continued global use of genotyping, and that inserts could have a functional significance in the mature protein, particularly the s2 form of the toxin, as the same combination of signal and mid-region insert type and preinsert motif was highly conserved.

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2007-04-01
2020-04-07
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