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Abstract

Trehalose is a natural glucose disaccharide identified in the 19th century in fungi and insect cocoons, and later across the three domains of life. In members of the genus , which includes the tuberculosis (TB) pathogen and over 160 species of nontuberculous mycobacteria (NTM), many of which are opportunistic pathogens, trehalose has been an important focus of research over the last 60 years. It is a crucial player in the assembly and architecture of the remarkable mycobacterial cell envelope as an element of unique highly antigenic glycolipids, namely trehalose dimycolate (‘cord factor’). Free trehalose has been detected in the mycobacterial cytoplasm and occasionally in oligosaccharides with unknown function. TB and NTM infection statistics and death toll, the decline in immune responses in the aging population, human immunodeficiency virus/AIDS or other debilitating conditions, and the proliferation of strains with different levels of resistance to the dated drugs in use, all merge into a serious public-health threat urging more effective vaccines, efficient diagnostic tools and new drugs. This review deals with the latest findings on mycobacterial trehalose biosynthesis, catabolism, processing and recycling, as well with the ongoing quest for novel trehalose-related mechanisms to be targeted by novel TB therapeutics. In this context, the drug-discovery pipeline has recently included new lead compounds directed toward trehalose-related targets highlighting the potential of these pathways to stem the tide of rising drug resistance.

Funding
This study was supported by the:
  • Mizutani Foundation for Glycoscience, Japan
  • Fundação para a Ciência e a Tecnologia (FCT), Portugal
  • Programa Operacional Factores de Competitividade (POFC)
  • FEDER/COMPETE (Award PEst-C/SAU/LA0001/2013-2014, PTDC/BIA-MIC/2779/2012 and PTDC/BIA-BCM/112459/2009)
  • FCT (Award SFRH/BPD/79531/2011, SFRH/BD/74845/2010 and SFRH/BPD/43321/2008)
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2014-08-01
2021-10-20
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