1887

Abstract

According to Bergey’s Manual of Systematic Bacteriology, the Rickettsiales are ‘…bacteria with typical Gram-negative cell walls and no flagella’. The recently sequenced genome of ‘ Midichloria mitochondrii’, a divergent lineage within the order Rickettsiales capable of invading mitochondria in ixodid ticks, revealed the presence of 26 putative flagellar genes. Open questions in relation to this observation are whether these genes are expressed and whether they possess the domains expected for the flagellar function. Here we show that: (a) the putative flagellar proteins of ‘ M. mitochondrii’ actually possess the conserved domains and structural features required for their function in a model bacterium; (b) the seven flagellar genes of ‘ M. mitochondrii’ that have been tested are expressed at the RNA level; and (c) the putative flagellar cap gene of this bacterium (FliD) is expressed at the protein level, and can be stained within the bacterium and at its surface. Beside the specific questions that we have addressed that relate to the first evidence, to our knowledge, for a flagellar apparatus in a member of the order Rickettsiales, we present here novel tools (recombinant protein and antibodies) that will facilitate the study of ‘ M. mitochondrii’.

Loading

Article metrics loading...

/content/journal/micro/10.1099/mic.0.057174-0
2012-07-01
2019-11-17
Loading full text...

Full text loading...

/deliver/fulltext/micro/158/7/1677.html?itemId=/content/journal/micro/10.1099/mic.0.057174-0&mimeType=html&fmt=ahah

References

  1. Beatson S. A., Minamino T., Pallen M. J.. ( 2006;). Variation in bacterial flagellins: from sequence to structure. . Trends Microbiol 14:, 151–155. [CrossRef][PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  2. Beninati T., Lo N., Sacchi L., Genchi C., Noda H., Bandi C.. ( 2004;). A novel alpha-Proteobacterium resides in the mitochondria of ovarian cells of the tick Ixodes ricinus. . Appl Environ Microbiol 70:, 2596–2602. [CrossRef][PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  3. Brown P. N., Hill C. P., Blair D. F.. ( 2002;). Crystal structure of the middle and C-terminal domains of the flagellar rotor protein FliG. . EMBO J 21:, 3225–3234. [CrossRef][PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  4. Chukkapalli G., Guda C., Subramaniam S.. ( 2004;). SledgeHMMER: a web server for batch searching the Pfam database. . Nucleic Acids Res 32: (Web Server), W542–W544. [CrossRef][PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  5. Dumler J. S., Walker D. H.. ( 2005;). Order II: Rickettsiales. . In Bergey’s Manual of Systematic Bacteriology, pp. 96–160. Edited by Brenner D. J., Krieg N. R., Staley J. T... New York:: Springer;.
    [Google Scholar]
  6. Epis S., Sassera D., Beninati T., Lo N., Beati L., Piesman J., Rinaldi L., McCoy K. D., Torina A. et al. ( 2008;). Midichloria mitochondrii is widespread in hard ticks (Ixodidae) and resides in the mitochondria of phylogenetically diverse species. . Parasitology 135:, 485–494. [CrossRef][PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  7. Maezawa K., Shigenobu S., Taniguchi H., Kubo T., Aizawa S., Morioka M.. ( 2006;). Hundreds of flagellar basal bodies cover the cell surface of the endosymbiotic bacterium Buchnera aphidicola sp. strain APS. . J Bacteriol 188:, 6539–6543. [CrossRef][PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  8. Manilla G.. ( 1998;). Acari Ixodida. Bologna:: Ed Calderini;.
    [Google Scholar]
  9. Marchler-Bauer A., Lu S., Anderson J. B., Chitsaz F., Derbyshire M. K., DeWeese-Scott C., Fong J. H., Geer L. Y., Geer R. C. et al. ( 2011;). CDD: a Conserved Domain Database for the functional annotation of proteins. . Nucleic Acids Res 39:, D225–D229. [CrossRef][PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  10. Park S. Y., Lowder B., Bilwes A. M., Blair D. F., Crane B. R.. ( 2006;). Structure of FliM provides insight into assembly of the switch complex in the bacterial flagella motor. . Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 103:, 11886–11891. [CrossRef][PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  11. Pistone D., Sacchi L., Lo N., Epis S., Pajolo M., Favia G., Mandrioli M., Bandi C., Sassera D.. ( 2011;). Candidatus Midichloria mitochondrii. Symbiont or parasite of tick mitochondria?. In Manipulative Tenants. Bacteria Associated with Arthropods, pp. 113–126. Edited by Zchori-Fein E., Bourtzis K... Boca Raton, FL:: CRC Press;.
    [Google Scholar]
  12. Rio R. V. M., Symula R. E., Wang J., Lohs C., Wu Y. N., Snyder A. K., Bjornson R. D., Oshima K., Biehl B. S. et al. ( 2012;). Insight into the transmission biology and species-specific functional capabilities of tsetse (Diptera: glossinidae) obligate symbiont wigglesworthia. . MBio 3:, e00240-11. [CrossRef][PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  13. Sacchi L., Bigliardi E., Corona S., Beninati T., Lo N., Franceschi A.. ( 2004;). A symbiont of the tick Ixodes ricinus invades and consumes mitochondria in a mode similar to that of the parasitic bacterium Bdellovibrio bacteriovorus. . Tissue Cell 36:, 43–53. [CrossRef][PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  14. Sassera D., Beninati T., Bandi C., Bouman E. A. P., Sacchi L., Fabbi M., Lo N.. ( 2006;). Candidatus Midichloria mitochondrii’, an endosymbiont of the tick Ixodes ricinus with a unique intramitochondrial lifestyle. . Int J Syst Evol Microbiol 56:, 2535–2540. [CrossRef][PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  15. Sassera D., Lo N., Bouman E. A., Epis S., Mortarino M., Bandi C.. ( 2008;). “Candidatus Midichloria” endosymbionts bloom after the blood meal of the host, the hard tick Ixodes ricinus. . Appl Environ Microbiol 74:, 6138–6140. [CrossRef][PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  16. Sassera D., Lo N., Epis S., D’Auria G., Montagna M., Comandatore F., Horner D., Peretó J., Luciano A. M. et al. ( 2011;). Phylogenomic evidence for the presence of a flagellum and cbb(3) oxidase in the free-living mitochondrial ancestor. . Mol Biol Evol 28:, 3285–3296. [CrossRef][PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  17. Shimoyama T., Kato S., Ishii S., Watanabe K.. ( 2009;). Flagellum mediates symbiosis. . Science 323:, 1574. [CrossRef][PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
http://instance.metastore.ingenta.com/content/journal/micro/10.1099/mic.0.057174-0
Loading
/content/journal/micro/10.1099/mic.0.057174-0
Loading

Data & Media loading...

This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Approval was a Success
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error