1887

Abstract

catabolizes -tartrate under anaerobic conditions to oxaloacetate by the use of -tartrate/succinate antiporter TtdT and -tartrate dehydratase TtdAB. Subsequently, -malate is channelled into fumarate respiration and degraded to succinate by the use of fumarase FumB and fumarate reductase FrdABCD. The genes encoding the latter pathway ( and ) are transcriptionally activated by the DcuS–DcuR two-component system. Expression of the -tartrate-specific operon encoding TtdAB and TtdT was stimulated by the LysR-type gene regulator TtdR in the presence of - and -tartrate, and repressed by O and nitrate. Anaerobic expression required a functional gene, and nitrate repression depended on NarL and NarP. Expression of , encoding TtdR, was repressed by O, nitrate and glucose, and positively regulated by TtdR and DcuS. Purified TtdR specifically bound to the promoter region. TtdR was also required for full expression of the DcuS–DcuR-dependent gene in the presence of tartrate. Overall, expression of the genes is subject to -/-tartrate-dependent induction, and to aerobic and nitrate repression. The control is exerted directly at and in addition indirectly by regulating TtdR levels. TtdR recognizes a subgroup (- and -tartrate) of the stimuli perceived by the sensor DcuS, which responds to all C-dicarboxylates; both systems apparently communicate by mutual regulation of the regulatory genes.

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2009-11-01
2019-12-11
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