1887

Abstract

, which causes the globally important head blight disease of wheat, is responsible for the production of the harmful mycotoxin deoxynivalenol (DON) in infected grain. The production of DON by occurs at much higher levels during infection than during axenic growth, and it is therefore important to understand how DON production is regulated in the fungus. Recently, we have identified amines as potent inducers of DON production in . Although amines strongly induced expression of the key DON biosynthesis gene and DON production to levels equivalent to those observed during infection, the timing of this induction suggested that other factors are also likely to be important for the regulation of DON biosynthesis. Here we demonstrate that low extracellular pH both promotes and is required for DON production in . A combination of low pH and amines results in significantly enhanced expression of the gene and increased DON production during axenic growth. A better understanding of DON production in would have implications in developing future toxin management strategies.

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2009-09-01
2019-10-16
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A pH shift induces the expression of . Cultures were pre-grown in defined medium containing glutamine as the sole nitrogen source prior to being switched into the same medium but also containing a 50 mM citrate buffer at various pH values. (A) Optical density data for cultures across the induction time-course. (B) Fluorescence from the reporter strain. Data are the mean of four biological replicates. [ PDF] (13 kb) Growth of in media buffered with various concentrations of MES. [ PDF] (18 kb) Optical density of cultures grown in PM10 3 days post-inoculation in glutamine or agmatine as the sole nitrogen source [ PDF] (12 kb) fluorescence values for strain 05T0017 ( ) less background fluoresence for the wild-type (CS3005) strain growing in the same conditions [ Excel file] (71 kb)

PDF

A pH shift induces the expression of . Cultures were pre-grown in defined medium containing glutamine as the sole nitrogen source prior to being switched into the same medium but also containing a 50 mM citrate buffer at various pH values. (A) Optical density data for cultures across the induction time-course. (B) Fluorescence from the reporter strain. Data are the mean of four biological replicates. [ PDF] (13 kb) Growth of in media buffered with various concentrations of MES. [ PDF] (18 kb) Optical density of cultures grown in PM10 3 days post-inoculation in glutamine or agmatine as the sole nitrogen source [ PDF] (12 kb) fluorescence values for strain 05T0017 ( ) less background fluoresence for the wild-type (CS3005) strain growing in the same conditions [ Excel file] (71 kb)

PDF

A pH shift induces the expression of . Cultures were pre-grown in defined medium containing glutamine as the sole nitrogen source prior to being switched into the same medium but also containing a 50 mM citrate buffer at various pH values. (A) Optical density data for cultures across the induction time-course. (B) Fluorescence from the reporter strain. Data are the mean of four biological replicates. [ PDF] (13 kb) Growth of in media buffered with various concentrations of MES. [ PDF] (18 kb) Optical density of cultures grown in PM10 3 days post-inoculation in glutamine or agmatine as the sole nitrogen source [ PDF] (12 kb) fluorescence values for strain 05T0017 ( ) less background fluoresence for the wild-type (CS3005) strain growing in the same conditions [ Excel file] (71 kb)

PDF

A pH shift induces the expression of . Cultures were pre-grown in defined medium containing glutamine as the sole nitrogen source prior to being switched into the same medium but also containing a 50 mM citrate buffer at various pH values. (A) Optical density data for cultures across the induction time-course. (B) Fluorescence from the reporter strain. Data are the mean of four biological replicates. [ PDF] (13 kb) Growth of in media buffered with various concentrations of MES. [ PDF] (18 kb) Optical density of cultures grown in PM10 3 days post-inoculation in glutamine or agmatine as the sole nitrogen source [ PDF] (12 kb) fluorescence values for strain 05T0017 ( ) less background fluoresence for the wild-type (CS3005) strain growing in the same conditions [ Excel file] (71 kb)

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